鄔達摩尊者編譯 ~ 莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集

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Avuso
文章: 459
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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-17, 17:28

[20] Time and Timelessness
19th April 1960

Time is referring to samsara (round of existence), and timelessness to Nibbāna. Sayadaw gave an example of timeless dhamma with the Anathapindikovada Sutta (Instruction to Anathapindika by Sāriputta near his death) of Majjhima Nikāya. The source of time is the sun and the moon, and without them is timelessness. With time we are eating by it, so that our life-span becoming shorter and shorter. Instead if we are eating time then we transcend it. Accordance to Dependent Arising, the direct order (anuloma) is eating by time and the reverse order (patiloma) time is eating by us. So Nibbāna is timelessness and Noble Eight Fold Path is timeless dhamma.
Sayadaw explained the 12-links of Paticca-samupadā and took the 8-factors; i.e from viññānam to kammabhava as present khandhas process. Without practicing we develop these 8-factors all the times. With practice only 5-factors, i.e from viññānam to feelings arise and then cut off the continuation of the process.

After the morning time and follow by night time is nothing to be happy about, because the body is eating by time and the good things are gone and bad things are leaving behind. In reality these are no profit for us only loss. We are living under the sun and the moon, and time appears. Human good kammas and intelligence are always eating by them. In the end we are becoming helpless. So we have to liberate ourselves under the influence of time. In Nibbāna there are no sun and moon, therefore no day and night time. Time was eaten by the Buddha and arahants. Even only become a sotāpanna, a lot of time has been eaten by him. Time can only eat him again not more than 7-lives time. These time and timelessness came from the Buddha who taught the 500 monks who were brahmins before. They had connection with the Bodhisatta in their past lives. After death take rebirth again is like a stick fallen on the wound. Because after dukkha, then dukkha again. Don't take the 5-khandhas as this is mine, this I am, and this is myself. Contemplate them as impermanence, suffering and not-self. The Noble Eight Fold Path is timeless dhamma.

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Avuso
文章: 459
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鄔達摩尊者編譯 ~ 莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-24, 14:05

[21] Near Death And The Five Mind Moments
29th May 1960

No one can die without seeing the way of rebirth, by seeing them with the near dying mind moments (vitticitta). Seeing the destinations with the near dying 5-mind moments and then pass away, after the dying mind moment already dead. Just send the corpse to the cemetery. The 5-mind moments are wholesome or unwholesome mental states. As example with unwholesome mental states, seeing back what one had deceived others or remembering them, seeing back the unwholesome kamma one had done. As an example for wholesome mental states, seeing back making dāna. For vipassanā practice, seeing the impermanence of the mind-body process reappear, seeing back the impermanence of the khandhas. People seeing whatever used to them (Habitual tendency, this point is very important.). Dying means one seeing back what one had done before. Some seeing the destinations of their rebirths. As example, hell fire, hell woks etc. and tears run down from their faces. At that time there is no time for making correction. Therefore, before death, from now on we have to prepare. You can't even talk to your children and wife besides you. He is in fright of what he is seeing. Those who can cry out and crying with fright.

There were very few stories could make corrections near death. The Buddha gave some instructions on this, by making preparation with insight practice. Near death discerning impermanence and these are anicca khandhas, dukkha khandhas and then become sotāpanna sakadagamin and anāgāmin before death. If die with impermanence and take rebirth in heaven. (Sayadaw mentioned about Mahānāma the cousin of the Buddha.) He was a sotāpanna but didn't know about it. So he asked the Buddha what would happen to him if he died with accident. The Buddha answered that he didn't need to worry about it, and already had the good quality for dying. Therefore, you all must prepare for impermanence. If you can have the ears of listening to the Sacca Dhamma is a tihetuka person.

King Milinda asked Ven. Nāgasena, " Is Nibbāna always exist or not?" People who can discern anicca in practice, it's exist for them. The ending of anicca is Nibbāna. If you contemplate the mind, the mind covers up Nibbāna. If you contemplate feeling, the feeling covers up Nibbāna. If you follow them to the end and uncover by it, then Nibbāna will appear.
最後由 Avuso 於 2017-12-31, 14:22 編輯,總共編輯了 1 次。

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文章: 459
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鄔達摩尊者編譯 ~ 莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-24, 14:16

[22]From Vulture Eye to Wisdom Eye
26th Sep. 1960

The dukkha you all know are head ache, throat ache etc., even animals know them. This was not the kind of dukkha which known by the noble disciples of the Buddha. The first kind of knowing is ordinary knowing (by listening talks etc.) and the later by direct knowing with contemplation. Only by the penetration of dukkha that not wanting dukkha will come. As an example, vultures like the putrid carcass of a dog because it's the vulture eye. Whatever existence you get, it’s only dukkha and asubha (suffering and loathsomeness). So you have to change your vulture eye to wisdom eye. King Milinda asked Ven. Nāgasena that could everyone realize Nibbāna. Not everyone, only people know dukkha and not wanting it will realize it. Knowing dukkha and penetration of dukkha can realize it. The vulture eye or worldling eye means craving and attachment is the cause of dukkha(samudaya). You all know the coarse dukkha, don't know the subtle one. In all dhamma, feelings are the most covered up phenomena to Nibbāna. The real torturer to you all is pleasant feeling disguise as happiness. The real happiness is santi sukha - the peacefulness of Nibbanic happiness. The reason for not arriving to Nibbāna is you all take the happiness of feeling as real happiness and can't throw it away. It looks like this simile. You pour some honey into a plate and leave it there. After sometimes ants come and eat it. Later they die and sticking there. They were tortured by pleasant feeling and die. Now you know that in the whole round of existence, living beings were torturing by feelings. Another simile is a fish in the water. A fisherman used a bait and left it in the water. The fish sees it (neutral feeling). After seeing and wanting to eat it (pleasant feeling). Goes and swallows it and the hook pierces its mouth (unpleasant feeling). The fisherman pulls it and beats it with a stick and it dies with dukkha vedanā.

So, all feelings are enemies. Therefore, all living beings don't know dukkha and not arrive to Nibbāna. By not knowing dukkha and no insight knowledge comes. By not getting insight knowledge and transcendental knowledge never arise.

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Avuso
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鄔達摩尊者編譯 ~ 莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-24, 14:28

[23] The Burden of The Khandhas
3rd Oct. 1960
The khandhas have sub-moment arising(uppāda), sub-moment presence(thiti) and sub-moment dissolution(bhaṅga). Nibbāna doesn't have these things. Therefore, doesn’t has old age, sickness and death. Khandha is the real truth of dukkha. It was mentioned to the monks by Sāriputta near his parinibbāna (passing away). Khandhas were always burning with the fire of defilement. Therefore, in the whole of samsara, I never had peace of mind. Carrying around these khandhas was heavier than Mount. Meru, because when the world ends it would be disappeared, but the khandhas would continue for existence.

Therefore, for someone who enters into Nibbāna element (parinibbāna) will welcome it with gladness. The way of insight is watching the khandhas. Whatever is arising if you are watching and will see it as not there. Because the knowing mind and the contemplative mind can't arise together. The arising is change (viparināma) and not existing is perishing. Therefore, only exist as change and perishing. Change and perishing are the truth of dukkha - viparināma lakkhanam dukkha saccam. If you will follow the khandhas process, you only see the changing and perishing - ehi passiko. If you are seeing the change and perishing, it becomes the knowledge of seeing the truth. After seeing it for sometimes in this way and later become don't want to see it. This is the knowledge of disenchantment (Nibbidā Nyan). Seeing the change and perishing is the knowledge of the way as it is (Yathabuta Nyan). If the knowledge of not wanting comes in, then the 5-khandhas disappear. This is leaving from the khandhas. If you ask, where it has gone? It's arriving to Nibbāna which is without khandhas. This point is very important. The nature of the khandhas are changing and perishing. If you are seeing these and get the yathabuta nyan. If you are continuing to contemplate and will become disenchantment with them. Yathabuta means the right seeing. After becoming disenchantment don't get up and leave, but have to be continued with your contemplation.

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鄔達摩尊者編譯 ~ 莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-24, 14:33

[24]Understanding of Insight Practice
13th Nov.1960

To get the first Path Knowledge (Magga Nyan) must kill wrong view. Wrong view is sticking in the 5-khandhas. Wrong view arises because of not knowing the anicca khandhas and the dukkha khandhas. First, strip off wrong view by perception (saññā), later dispelling them by contemplation. Hence, these are the 3-stages of practice; i.e intellectual, practical and realization knowledges (ñāta pariññā), (tīrāṇa pariññā) and (pahāna pariññā). So, wanting to strip off wrong view need to explain the 5-khandhas. To understand the 5-khandhas need to know the Dependent Arising (Paticca-samupadā). Without knowing it, and then have doubt about the source of the khandhas. Dependent Arising has 2 kinds; i.e in the book and in the present khandhas. Must know the present Dependent Arising. Wrong views and doubts are sticking within the 5-khandhas. It happens because of not knowing their arising and ceasing. It happens because not understand the law of Dependent Arising. Dependent Arising of the past was already gone so nothing to do with us now. Future also does not arise yet. Only the present is important. Everybody's khandhas are the process of cause & effect. So, only explain about mind & body is not enough. According to the book to kill ignorance and volitional formation (avijjā and sankhāra) is right, but this body is the cause of past Dependent Arising. The real has to kill is the present arising of avijjā and sankhāra. By knowing the present Dependent Arising, then ignorance becomes knowledge (avijjā becomes vijjā). Without ignorance will not make sankhāra. So have to practice become vijjā and asankhāra (konwledge and not compounded). To prevent the fruits of ignorance and formation to arise, start from the present khandhas. In this way no new khandha tree grows out. Without this then it will never end. So, to know the present arising khandhas. For example, eyes contact with the physicalform, and eye consciousness(seeing) arises. The eyes are the present arising material phenomena and the physical form also. New eyes and new physical form, new mind, new feeling, new perception and the volition of wanting to see also a new one. All these new 5-khandhas are arising now. These new 5-khandhas are nothing to do with the past and future. From sense-consciousness to feeling; i.e the 5-khandhas are arising together. In the text writing it down in separately, but in the real process appear together. So the present 5-khandhas are not the 5-khandhas gave birth by mother, also not created by God.

Only knowing the khandha which is now arising will know the khandha which is now passing away. You all don't know how to watch a movie. When you are looking at the pictures on the movie screen, you think it's permanent. In reality what happening is within a minute many pictures are arising & passing away. These can be only known by looking at the role of film in the machine. The material phenomena of the eye caused by the past kamma were already ceased. Now is the new material phenomena caused by the new kamma. (Sayadaw also mentioned an important point that when the 5-khandhas are arising we only aware of the most prominent one.) For example, in a soup when salt is more prominent than the other, and we say it's salty. But in reality inside the soup including other tastes also, such as sweetness, spicy etc. Within the 5-khandhas of the seeing mind, consciousness and feeling are more prominent, but the other 3 khandhas also arise together with them. (And then Sayadaw explained each one of them and the connection of cause & effect.) Eye-base and physical form elements are the causes (paticca-samupadā) and the 4 mind khandhas are the results (paticca-samupana).
So, there are no personality and living being, only cause & effect process phenomena. Do you have any wrong view and doubt as where I come from? Material phenomena are only material elements, don't come and confuse it. Mind phenomena are only mind elements, don't come and confuse it. Material phenomena are conditioning by kamma, citta(mind), utu(temperature) and āhāra(food), not created by Māha Brahma and God. By knowing the causes, doubt is overcome. Knowing that there are only mind & body phenomena, can wrong view come and stick with it? No, in this way wrong view and doubt fall away. This is only in intellect and not by practice. There are 3 ways to dispel them; i.e by intellect, practice and extermination (study, practice and realization). The 5-khandhas are arising and passing away, and replace by another new khandhas...etc. in this way without end. (The past kammic energy support these continuations.) For contemplation no need to concentrate all the 5-khandhas, only one of them. It's the contemplation of impermanence and also one's own death. After you have seen your own death all the times and do you still want it? The Buddha said that if you are looking for the beginning of a being, it will never end. Why is that? Because all these deaths can never come to an end. When every khandhas arising and can't contemplate, then Dependent Arising continues and will receive future khandhas continuously. By contemplation it can not. Vipassanā is contemplating one's own death. After seeing your own death, do you have any affection to them? In this way of discerning impermanence, the Buddha and worldling (puthujjana yogi) are not the same rate. As example, the Buddha in each moment for the mind 107X105 times and matter 107x5000times. These rate were after become a Buddha, before enlightenment could not discern that much. Even the Buddha and Ven. Sāriputta are not the same rate. (This talk was delivering to U Tan Daing and his friend U Tun Yin. They came from Rangoon and made inquiry on practice. Later U Tan Daing became a very close disciple and propagated Sayadaw’s talks around Burma by establishing Mogok Vipassanā Centre in Rangoon.)

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文章: 459
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鄔達摩尊者編譯 ~ 莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-24, 14:39

[25]To Deal With Wrong View & Doubt
14th Nov.1960

Sit comfortably and observing the breath in & out normally. This is oriented for samādhi. Samatha by itself can't arrive to Nibbāna. Let us talk about vipassanā. After you are observing the breath for sometimes, there arises an itching sensation at a place on the body. Before, this’s not exist on the body. It's changing now (viparināma). Changing is arising, the change disappears is perishing. Only arising and passing away exist. After stop ānāpānasati for a while and observe, seeing the arising & passing away. Changing is the truth of dukkha. What the Buddha said was right. Knowing is magga sacca. In this way following all the arising phenomena and seeing their arising & passing away is truth of dukkha. Then you know what the Buddha said that clinging to the 5-khandhas was dukkha sacca. In this way whatever mind arises and know, feeling arises and know. You will discover them on the whole body. They are arising without any gaps for a needle to get in. Kāye sabhāvaṃ viditavāna – It’s knowing the nature of the body. You know that one's body is truth of dukkha. Don't follow ānāpānasati, but if samādhi and discernment become weak, then return to the breath. Observe the mind at the heart base which is knowing the breath. After that follow whatever arising and then without anything to follow just return to the breath. This is knowing the phenomena of dukkha, so it's mindfulness of the dhammas - Dammanupassanā satipatthāna. Practice as the simile of a spider taught by Ven. Nāgasena to King Milinda. By watching and catching, you will get the prey of impermanence. After you discerning them as disgusting, and disenchanting and the knowledge develops. Before you discern the impermanence of dukkha, and now is knowledge of disenchantment. If you are becoming disenchantment, then it's the 2nd development of knowledge. After disenchantment I want to remind you, continue to follow the arising phenomena. They will show you the truth of dukkha. After that, develop to the knowledge of not wanting, because it's the assemblage of dukkha that becomes the knowledge of not wanting. And then all dukkha will come to an end. Dukkha nirodho Nibbānam - you will find Nibbāna, the ending of dukkha. The death of tanhā-ditthi is samudaya sacca. It extinguishes the hell fire and wok. (In this talk Sayadaw urged his disciples to do vipassanā first and later for business.) You have to practice vipassanā during your daily life, such as eating, working etc. After you are closing the doors of painful rebirths and can live as you like. Because old age, sickness and death are always there. You have to practice hard before death come and before your kamma and intelligence become weak.

For healthy and safety life people are looking for refuge here and there. Some times with superstition and wrong ways. If you have envy and avarice will never safe from dangers. You have to make precautions beforehand when it comes, and know how to defend it. Don't forget about that treasure accumulate with treasure, and rubbish with rubbish. If you have love and hate, then envy and avarice will come. Greed and anger are the source of it. If you are practicing dhamma, then you are the insider of the Sasāna (Dispensation of the Buddha) and without it the outsider. The outsider can't enjoy the sun and the moon of the Sasāna. If you die earlier, Sasāna also disappear for you. So there are 2 reasons for its disappearance, die early and not practicing. Love and hate come from desire. There are two kinds of desires, wholesome and unwholesome. Desire comes from thinking. You can't sleep at night because of too much thinking. So, have to contemplate thinking(vitakka).

Wrong view and doubt are sticking in the khandhas. So have to know the cause of the khandhas. To understand the khandhas have to know Dependent Arising. Without fallen off ditthi beings are wondering in the pleasant and unpleasant existences. The cause of the khandhas is Dependent Arising. From there you know how to strip off wrong view and doubt. Real understanding of it is quite rare (Sayadaw emphasized was true, most Buddhist even don't know about it.) Want to strip off ditthi have to understand the source of Dependent Arising. Without knowing the causes of the khandhas, stuck with doubt. Don't know the result, stuck with wrong view. This is a very important point. In the Saṁyutta-nikāya the Buddha mentioned that it was more important than the head was burning with fire and the body was piercing with a spear. Have to deal with wrong view first and later the other problems. Don't take it as I am frightening you. There is nothing more frightening than wrong view. The Buddha used his knowledge and saw that nothing was more serious than wrong view. There were a lot of stories on killing parents (Nowadays a lot of news on patricide and matricide appeared in the east and west.) If you have ditthi and tanhā will come. Forbid the Path and Fruit is ditthi. Resistance by wrong view and doubt even someone discerning anicca can't realize Nibbāna (Sayadaw in his many talks emphasized this point very often.) If you don't intellectually dispel wrong view beforehand whatever you are seeing can't realize Nibbāna. There were many stories in the Pali Texts. As examples, Ven. Anuradha, Ven Channa and Ven. Yamaka, they couldn't realize the Dhamma before because of their wrong views. Only by the help of the Buddha and Ven. Sāriputta that became success. After Ananda became a stream enterer but could not developed forwards was looking after the Buddha and busying with other matters.

Khandha Paticca-samupadā - doesn't mean the whole day of process but what happening at the present moment. Present khandha is not the khandha gave birth by mother or yesterday khandha, but the new arising khandha. If you know this, you are free from the view of permanence. From young you are growing up is eternalism - sassata ditthi. People will think the new arising khandha is nothing to do with the old khandha, then it becomes annihilationism - uccheda ditthi, so wrong view is sticking here and there. These 2 wrong views are hindering the Path and Fruit Knowledges. The Buddha said to go on the middle way. The matter of the eye is conditioned by kamma, citta, utu and āhāra (action, mind, temperature and food). Eye consciousness is caused by arom-dvāra (sense door and sense object). By knowing these will free from uccheda ditthi. The cause is not cutting off. By intellectually free from ditthi and discerning impermanence can enter Nibbāna. These 2 wrong views are coming from identity view - sakkāya ditthi.

Don't let these views arise with the 5-khandhas. The Buddha said if you had any one of them even didn't have the knowledge in accordance with the truth - saccanulomika nyan. If you have identity view and also have all the 62-wrong views. By knowing that it is the process of cause & effect and not created by Māha Braham or God, and then free from doubt. These are cause & effect phenomena, not a person and not a being. Condensed the 5-khandhas, only have mind & body. In the discussion between Ven. Sāriputta and Ven. Kothitha, it was said that by contemplation of the mind including the body. By contemplation of the body was including the mind. Viññanam and nāma-rūpa (consciousness and name-form) are also the same way. These examples were by the Buddha and Sāriputta. They are depending on each other. If one of them is collapsing and the other also do. Therefore, Sabbe sankhāra anicca - All conditioned phenomena are impermanent. Everyday people are doing uncountable unwholesome kammas. So the result would be also a lot but the time is not yet arriving to give the result. They are not doing anything to cut off the kammas. Because of vedanā living beings are doing a lot of kammas (vedanā paccaya tanhā...kammabhāvo - feeling conditioned craving...action). These are kammas desire for khandhas. You all take kamma as parents so rely on them as kam father and kam mother (kam - Burmese word for kamma). But the Buddha taught you to rely on nyan parents, nyan father and nyan mother (nyan - Burmese word for nānam). Between feeling and craving insert knowledge. You divide the 5-khandhas and get the 4-satipatthāna. If you can contemplate impermanence to anyone of them, then craving and clinging are gone. Therefore, the Buddha declared that he had got rid of all wholesome and unwholesome dhammas. Wanting to cut off kamma, practice with one of the satipatthāna. Without it become a human ball and kick by the wholesome and unwholesome dhammas. So must contemplate impermanence to one of the satipatthāna.

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文章: 459
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鄔達摩尊者編譯 ~ 莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-31, 13:41

[26]Contemplate Anicca , Perceive Anicca & Know Anicca
1st Feb.1960

[Based on Sadanta Sutta, Anguttara-Nikāya. Five hundred Licchavi princes were talking about, "What are the most difficult things to come by?" They thought about the 5 things as: horse, elephant, jewels, woman and a rich person. They asked the Buddha and he answered the 5 rare things to encounter. These are:
1. To encounter the Buddha's Sasāna
2. To encounter a teacher who can teach the Sacca Dhamma
3. By understanding of the Sacca Dhamma
4. After understanding and put into practice, and discern anicca(Dhammanu-dhammapaṭipātti)
5. Repay the gratitude by realization of the Dhamma-> (To the Triple Gems and the teacher)

This is an important discourse. Now, you all are having these rarities. So have to put effort for practice without giving up. Every time the mind is in despair check these factors and encourage yourself. Another discourse in the Anguttara; the Buddha taught about the way of practice for the realization. People who have these 5 rarities and practice in accordance with the way and have confidence must realize the Dhamma. I myself is teaching you the right things in accordance with what the Buddha had taught. The tradition of the Buddha was never talked 2 ways but only one true speech. (This point is very important for Buddhists who study the teaching of the Buddha, if not, they will confuse with what the Buddha had taught, because there were new ideas crept into his teachings.) He used to speak only what was beneficial. I'll talk about the Buddha's way of practice. The Buddha taught that whatever mind state arises contemplate as anicca, perceive as anicca, and know as anicca. As example; lobha, dosa etc. mental state arise and by contemplating no clinging happen and no kamma create. So they all cease to come. (1) Whatever arising and contemplate anicca, (2) perceive as anicca. You have to contemplate quickly. If not, kilesa will take the upper-hand. This is the Dhammaniyama Natural Procedure. It's happening all the times. Dependent Arising is natural procedure. If you don't contemplate, it will continue. If you contemplate, it's cutting off. It's the natural procedure of the round of existence and must cut off with effort. You can stop the wheel of samsaric dukkha with the wholesome dhamma of insight. (3) Knowing it as anicca - This knowing create the wholesome dhamma. These 3 points were taught by the Buddha that I have to mention it. In the real practice by contemplation of impermanence and all are including in it. And then you can ask, "Can I realize the Dhamma in this way?" If you can contemplate by not letting kilesa comes into the practice will realize it.

When you are doing sitting meditation make a resolution - aditthana. As examples, "Within an hour I'll not let kilesa come in and only continue with anicca. Staying with anicca and do not mix-up with other mental states." Hence, will realize the peaceful sukkha Nibbāna in this life as guaranteed by the Buddha in the Sutta, try hard in the practice. I am worry that you may put the blame on the perfection - pārami. So I had talked about the 5-rarities beforehand. Concern with the kilesa which comes in and take it as an object of meditation. So contemplate it as anicca. Example, hearing a sound and contemplate the hearing consciousness. If you don't then the kilesa mind of “What sound it is?” will come in. Whatever mind state comes in, it's for the starting point of kilesa to follow behind. By contemplation of the first coming in mind state is cutting off the kilesa mind which will follow behind. If you ask, "When I'll realize the Dhamma?" This is depending on you and nothing to do with the teacher. Depend on one's own character and perseverance or kilesa volume and effort. Without kilesa comes into the practice will realize quickly. Anyhow you will realize it but do not reduce your effort. If you afraid of the dukkha as much as the drops of water in the lake of each side 50-yojana wide, length and depth, you must work hard (a simile used by The Buddha in the Saṁyutta-nikāya.).

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文章: 459
註冊時間: 2004-09-19, 08:00

鄔達摩尊者編譯 ~ 莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-31, 13:48

[27]Worldly Fetters and Realization
19th Nov.1960

[Vaccha brahmin asked the Buddha the following questions. (1) Is there anyone without giving up the worldly attachment can realize Nibbāna? (2) Is there anyone without giving up the worldly attachment can reach good rebirth? (3) Any Ajivaka ever been realized Nibbāna? (4) Any Ajivaka ever been reached good rebirth? (Ajivakas were people reject the law of kamma.) The Buddha's answers to these were: (1) Negative answer (2) Positive answer (3) Negative answer (4) Negative answer, but only one person. Sayadaw gave a clear explanation to these Q&A. He said someone is at the time of practicing already giving up worldly things. Therefore, people in family life by regular practice can realize Nibbāna (e-g Sun Lun Sayadaw was a very good example in modern time). For Ajivakas they had niyata miccha ditthi fixed in destiny because of this wrong view or akiriyavāda - doctrine of non-action. So the Buddha with his psychic power looking back 100,000 kappas - Buddhist aeons never seen any Ajivaka realized Nibbāna and reached good rebirths. But the Buddha only saw one Ajivaka reached sugati - good rebirth, and this man was he himself and at that time believed in kamma.

Vaccha said that people believed that the Buddha knew everything every moment even during sleep. The Buddha replied that it was misinterpreting him. (Later Buddhists also misinterpret him in many things.) He only knew by reflection. Sayadaw explained vipassanā process and said that the Buddha mentioned only 3 insight knowledges. These are: (1) Udayabbaya nyan - Knowledge of rise and fall (2) Nibbida nyan - Knowledge of disenchantment (3) Magga nyan - Path Knowledge. Path Knowledge is discarding the khandhas and tanhā. As example, Sotāpatti Magga Nyan - The Path Knowledge of Stream Enterer is discarding the 5-khandhas to painful rebirths (hell, ghost and animal) and the craving to identify view - sakkāya ditthi, doubt - viccikiccha and adherence to rites and ceremonies - sīlabbataparamasa.]

The Buddha automatically knew everything was not true. He knew only by thinking. Sleep was with the life continuum of the mind (bhavanga citta) and how could he knew it. He was a triple knowledge(Tevijjā) person. These are: Pubbenivasa abhiññā - Direct knowledge of past lives. If he was thinking people past lives and knew all of them, he also knew what would happen to them in the future. This was Dibbacakkhu abhiññā - Direct knowledge of divine eye. And also had the knowledge of destruction of the taints - āsavaskhaya nyan. With this knowledge he also could teach people for their destruction of the taints. (This was the most important knowledge of the all.) (Sayadaw gave some examples of the King Suddhodāna and Santati Minister for their attainments of Nibbāna living in the family life.) The fetter - Samyojana of affection to one's body is greater than the fetter of wealth and family members. The time of practice is the time of discarding the fetter temporary. So the one who practices will realize the Dhamma and no practice without realization. If you know how to insert the knowledge between the Dependent Arising processes at anytime; then you are discarding the fetters. During the practice if any kilesa comes in, then it will take time, and without coming in become quicker. So don't blame on the perfection (pārami). In Pekopadesa Pali, for ordinary disciples - pakati savakas, if they complete with these 2 factors will realize the Dhamma: (1) Listening to the Sacca Dhamma and (2) Wise attention. If you end up at other people sayings can be miss the chances. This is terrible. A person without contemplation and the fetters are always happening. By contemplation and it doesn't. If you are still discerning only mind and feeling, then these are lower level of knowledge. Not seeing mind and feeling instead anicca means higher level of knowledge. Not discerning the 3-characteristics is still in the lower level. Seeing rise and fall will arrive to the higher level of knowledge, arriving to its intrinsic nature - sabhāva. If you are still seeing the khandhas (i.e form, feeling, mind..etc) still not complete, because the Buddha said that the 5-khandhas are anicca. In the satipatthāna Sutta Pali said that have to know the mind, feeling etc, but not ask to contemplate these things. (It was mentioned in the beginning.) The Buddha wanted us to contemplate are their anicca. (It was mentioned in the end.)

Contemplation of feeling means remind us the object and without it don't know what to do. The real contemplation is the arising & passing away of them. To know that after arising is not there. Seeing impermanence is Yathabuta nyan - the knowledge of the way as it really is. Both of the Pali passages are right. The reason why the Buddha taught about the lower level of knowledge was to let us know the object of contemplation. To show the objects of contemplation. Is it see them or to discern their impermanence? Only by discerning impermanence that the reality and the knowing become fit together (i.e Yathabuta nyan, here the Burmese words for the reality and the knowing fit together means you are discerning what really exist. But usually we see what really not exist.) Arriving to the higher level of knowledge, then wrong view falls off. If you discern impermanence continue to contemplate. After sometime will become disenchantment but still in the 5-factors of the Path. Before you see the impermanence and now become disenchantment. These 2 knowledges are quite different. If you ask why they are different? The answer is kilesa becoming thinner. Don't reduce your effort and contemplate with perseverance. The knowledge will rise up again as these are not worthy to have. This is the penetration to the knowledge of Function - Kicca Nyan. The object of contemplation, mind and feeling etc. disappear. It’s the right knowing of the truth of dukkha. The knandhas related to the ditthi kilesa - defilement of wrong view disappear. It becomes khandha nirodho Nibbānam - The ceasing of the khandha is Nibbāna. ditthi kilesa disappears by not arising. The khandha disappears from the existing. Khandha nirodho and the 4 apaya nirodho cease together. (Here, by destroying the defilement of wrong view that present khandha ceases and at the same time the future 4 painful rebirths are totally ceased.) The 3-insight knowledges of seeing impermanence, disenchantment and the ending of the khandha are teaching by every Buddha in the past and the future to come. (This talk can be had an interpretation problem for some to satipatthāna. To know both – the arising and passing away. In the beginning of the practice may be can’t discern impermanent. After with strong sati and samādhi can discern it.)

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鄔達摩尊者編譯 ~ 莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-31, 13:58

[28]Volition, Action and Kammic Formation
23rd Nov.1960

[Here, Sayadaw gave a talk on cetanā(volition), action(kamma) and sankhāra (kammic formation). It was an interesting talk and explained their meanings and their connection in the Pali Suttas and Abhidhamma. These words are important for Buddhists to know them. sankhāra has 4 meanings: (1) formation; (2) mental formation, i.e the 4th aggregate; (3) kammic formation; (4) prompting. The sankhāra here in this talk was No. (3) kammic formation or in the 12-links of Dependent Arising avijjā paccaya sankhāra - ignorance condition kammic formation.

The Buddha with his pubbenivāsa abhiñña - direct knowledge of past lives was looking backwards to find the beginning of a living being (even may be his own). But he would never reach the end of his past lives because samsāra - round of existence was too long for every living being, but he could find the causes of their origin. It was avijjā(ignorance) and tanhā(craving). Sayadaw said all the khandhas are conditioning craving and not only feeling(vedanā), but feeling is the nearest cause for craving.]
[Cetanā - volition or stimulation is kamma - action. Two kinds of cetanā; create kamma and not create kamma. Pure cetanā is not create kamma just only cetanā. By vattas (round of existence); vatta cetanā - create existence, and vivatta cetanā - not creat existence. All arahants their actions are pure cetanā and not kamma. If giving the result, it's kamma. In the Dependent Arising of 12-links, sankhāra is past kamma and kamma-bhāva is present kamma.

In our many past lives we had created many sankhāra kamma; i.e good, bad or mixed kamma which are always waiting for the chance to give the result. Kamma-bhāva is 2 ways. If we have a teacher who can teach Dependent Co-arising and vipassanā practice, then we will not create kamma-bhāva. If not, we create kamma all the times. We can observe our minds at viññānam or vedanā or tanhā or upādāna (see the 12-links of D.A). In this way stop creating kamma. In past lives because of avijjā and tanhā (ignorance is like father and craving is mother), we had created many kammas which were sankhāra. It will follow up in samsāra until our last lives as arahants. We can see these results in the Suttas and in daily life of all human beings. As an example of Ven. Mahā-Moggallāna's life; he was severely beaten by bandits. Because of one of his heavy kammas on his past life by killing his own mother. (Sayadaw continued to explain that people can take kamma with wrong view by telling the Mahā Punnama Sutta.)
In the Abhiha Sutta (The Daily 5-Recollections, from Anguttara), the Buddha taught to rely on kamma as a conventional truth or samatha practice(cāganusati). The path of kamma is within the round of 31-realms and the path of knowledge (nyan) transcends it. Kammic way is in samsāra and nyanic way is transcend samsāra or towards Nibbāna. For vivatta dāna (generosity to transcend dukkha), the Buddha mentioned dāna with vipassanā (in the Anguttara).

In the Abhidhamma of Dhamma-sanganī, we can see 3 types of dhamma. (1) Acayagāmino dhamma (2) Apacaya-gāmino dhamma (3) Nevācaya-gāmino nā pacaya-gāmino dhamma. The first is dhamma leading to birth and death, i.e all wholesome and unwholesome dhammas. The second is not leading to birth and death; i.e The Noble Eight Fold Path. The third is neither (1) nor (2); i.e the Buddha and arahants. The 3 dhamma can be found in the khandhas.]

The seed of volition(cetanā) is called action(kamma). Without the seed is just volition. The past action is sankhāra and the present is kamma-bhāva. Functional kamma is kariya kamma, just only function which were done by the Buddha and arahants. The kamma not give the result is regarding as pure cetanā. Some kamma-bhāva give the results and some are not. Can contemplate up to clinging(upādāna) not create kamma and no result (In the Satipatthāna Sutta of contemplation of the mind, the Buddha asked to contemplate when greed arose. But from craving to become clinging may be a little difficult.) sankhāra kamma is always giving the result. Without the ignorance ceases then the sankhāra not ceases, the sankhāra not ceases always connect the khandha process. By meeting spiritual friend (kalyānamitta) can stop the kamma-bhāva. Buddha and arahants are only khandhas. Others are clinging khandha (upādānakkhandha). A person without any clinging is just only khandha and with clinging is upādānakkhandha. There are many types of khandha; past and present khandhas etc. Take the kamma as mine is atta-ditthi(self-view) or kammavadi atta-ditthi. Permanence(nicca) is self(atta) and both are the same. The Buddha taught that: Sabbe dhamma anatta - All dhammas (including Nibbāna) are not self. Therefore, how can kamma becomes atta-self. Including Nibbāna is not self (Some Buddhists described or took Nibbāna as like atta in some books and teachings, i-e go against the Buddha’s teachings.) Taught about kamma in the suttanta method is for people who want Nibbāna slowly. But, now who want Nibbāna have to cut off kamma by doing vipassanā. Any realm of existences is the power of kammic energy. Cutting off kamma is the power of knowledge. Every dāna done by seeing dukkha sacca is not continue the round of existence(samsāra).

(Sayadaw taught his disciples how to perform a vivatta dāna which support to transcend dukkha. Most people done it with the desire (loba-tanhā) for the support of round of becoming. There were a few talks by him for this purpose before, and after a great offering, such as kathina ceremonies, for meditation hall, Sangha dwellings etc. First talked about dukkha sacca from the mother's womb to old age, sickness and death, about burning with the eleven fires of human life etc.) First to contemplate and see the impermanence of the khandha. And then make a resolution by wanting to free from the vatta dukkha - round of dukkha existence. This dāna is done by the knowledge of truth - sacca nyan. The most superior dāna is enriching by vipassanā(Anguttara). The dāna for changing prison is not good and also not encourage. Whatever prison you are in changing prison is only prison. In the same way whatever existence you are in changing dukkha is only dukkha. (at last Sayadaw used the Sammā-datthi Sutta from the Majjhima Nikāya to explain the two types of worldling.) (1) Worldlings outside the Sasāna. Believe in kamma, so kammasakata sammā-ditthi. By itself alone not realize Nibbāna. (2) Worldlings inside the Sasāna. Believe in kamma also and get the knowledge of impermanence, so can realize Nibbāna.

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鄔達摩尊者編譯 ~ 莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

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