Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 2

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Nalorakk
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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 2-1

文章 Nalorakk » 2018-12-14, 16:15

[01] Five Kinds Of Right View
26th Feb 1960 to 2nd March 1960 (In Mandalay)

T1 (Sayadaw explained the 5 kinds of right view one by one.)
(1).Kammasakata Sammādiṭṭhi – Belief in law of kamma (cause & effect)
(2).Jhāna Sammādiṭṭhi – Right view in jhāna
[(1) &(2) can be existed outside the Buddha’s Teachings.)
(3).Vipassanā Sammādiṭṭhi – Right view in insight knowledge ( With this knowledge by practicing hard in this life can be realized Nibbāna.)
(4).Magga Sammādiṭṭhi – Right view of the path knowledge (Its result is cutting off the round of rebirth.)
(5).Phala Sammādiṭṭhi – Right view in the fruition knowledge. Only with the Path (magga) that the Fruit (phala) can be possible. From (3) to (5) are the practices of the holy life (Maggabrahmacariya). The practice of the holy life is working on the arising process of Dependent Origination (paticca-samupāda). When the 5-khandhas are arising, what happen to them? Just make this habitual exercise on them. As an example, when you are hearing a sound, it appears in the ear and disappears there. Make this habitual exercise. After hearing and not existing is passing away. Other khandhas are also passing away with it.(In this talk, Sayadaw referred to the 6-sense doors ~ eye, ear, nose, tongue, body & mind ~ as the 6 beggars who are always asking for what they want.)

T2 (In this talk, Sayadaw gave the instruction on Vedanānupassanā. According to the Sayadaw, in the Satipatthāna Sutta the Buddha separated the 5-khandhas into four groups for sati to the suttanta way. Actually they arise and cease together. Yogi usually does not clear about these. We should mindful whatever khandha is clear to us. Sayadaw said: the 5-khandhas always starting from consciousness (viññāna) and easy to discern. The first stage of realization (entering the stream) is destroying wrong view and doubt. Most people take the mind as a permanent soul (also most of the religions), so the important of cittānupassanā. Sayadaw taught how to develop insight. By watching and observing whatever arises will discern anicca. But it does not mean that we see the arising and ceasing at the same moment. With sati we see the arising (saṅkhāra) and then by observing or contemplating it’s not there anymore. Knowing the object of arising and observing the object can’t arise together, because two minds could not arise together or at the same moment. Every time seeing anicca is killing the wrong views.)

Vipassanā Sammādiṭṭhi means seeing rightly. Seeing rightly on what? Seeing the beginning of the Dependent Arising (Paticcasamupāda). If you can’t catch on the beginning must be in the middle. Do not contemplate the past ignorance (avijjā) and rebirth consciousness (patisandhi viññāna) but the present moment consciousness (pavutti viññāna). The beginning of the khandha is consciousness or the 6-consciousness. In the Satipathāna Sutta mentioned separately. I am talking about their combination. When they are arising and passing away not in separately. As an example, when hearing consciousness arises, with hearing consciousness, feeling, perception, volitional formation; the four mind khandhas (nāmakkhandha) are arising together.


If you contemplate the most prominent one and all the other four are included. Why I ask you to contemplate consciousness? Because it’s clear and no need to search for. (In this talk Sayadaw was using feeling to explain the practice.) If you are contemplating the arising of feeling will see the disappearance of it. Insight knowledge (vipassanā nyan) is seeing the impermanence of conditioned phenomena (saṅkhāra). By conditioning it is arising and disappearing. In conclusion when you see the arising & passing away, does it like the light going out and becoming darkness? If you see in this way, then it becomes 2-minds. You will see it as not there. It is in this way that using the words arising & passing away (udayabbaya). We are using it because it is arising & disappearing. In reality seeing the arising is not there. You meet the non-existence. The past moment conditioned dhamma is not there anymore. If the yogi sees in this way, the identity view (sakkāya diṭṭhi) to painful rebirth is falling away. The Buddha asked to kill the seed of painful rebirths. Contemplate the conditioned dhamma of existence and non-existence is the right view of vipassanā knowledge (vipassanā sammādiṭṭhi). Seeing it as exist & not exist is without the wrong view. Therefore, wrong view is falling away by practice. This is seeing the impermanence of phenomena (dhamma) without any person and being. What is the benefit of insight knowledge? Wrong view is falling away. It can dispel the 3 types of wrong view that insight knowledge is very important (i-e, identity view, permanent view & annihilation view).

T3 Let someone dies after seeing impermanence will not fall into painful rebirths (hell, animal, ghost-peta). Because of the falling away of wrong view and in the next life will realize the path of stream-entry (sottāpatti magga). It was mentioned in the Anguttara Nikāya. Analyzing the mind & body is dispelling wrong view by perception (saññā). By discerning of anicca is wisdom (paññā). If wrong view is not dispelled, and it’s like a stone has fallen into the water, never come up again. We missed many Buddhas as much as sand grains in the River Ganges were because of wrong view. This is the root of all unwholesome dhammas. In the Saṁyutta Nikāya the Buddha said that the Dhamma to Nibbāna was vipassanā. If you ask, why it does so and the answer is the falling away of sakkāya diṭṭhi. By seeing the arising & passing away and contemplating up to disenchantment of it. Then vipassanā will come to an end.

Now, I will talk about magga-sammādiṭṭhi. It means The Noble Eight Fold Path. It’s the leader of right view. If you ask what is the difference between No.(3) and No.(4)(vipassanā right view and Path right view). No.(3) is ending up in impermanence (anicca). Its ability is seeing impermanence and the functioning of dispelling sakkāya diṭṭhi. The magga-sammādiṭṭhi is not seeing impermanence and has the function of seeing Nibbāna. To become No.(4) have to work with No.(3) for many times. Don’t think Nibbāna as liked the circular sun and moon, it’s the cessation of impermanence, peaceful and cool nature. The knowing of it is the Path. Quite a different view.

King Milanda asked Ven. Nagasena: “Please explain to me the seeing of Nibbāna by practice.” “Nibbāna exists, but not in the 3 periods of time (past, present, future)” answered Nagasena. The King responded, “If it’s free from the 3 periods of time, it can’t be existed.” I’ll give an example. Normally there is no fire in these 2 pieces of bamboo. But if you are rubbing them together for a longer period of time, and fire will come out. In the same way, if you contemplate impermanence for many times, and Nibbāna appears. For the one who is practicing, it exists. You don’t need the paramis. You have the qualities which were mentioned in the Anguttara Nikāya. First with vipassanā knowledge contemplating impermanence and then later it will mature. At last, nyan (mind or knowledge) is turning towards the no arising and passing away. That’s Nibbāna.

T4 Five kinds of right view came from Anguttara Nikāya . Without the No.(3) you can’t get the No.(4). The meaning here is without falling away of wrong view, you can’t get the Path. Give an example; when you do the farming, first you have to clear up grasses and weeds, and then collecting them together for burning. Clearing the grasses and weeds and collecting them are liked insight knowledges, burning them is liked the Path(magga). Insight knowledges kill the coarse defilements. The Path kills the latent disposition(anusaya). The insight right view is more important than the Path right view. Today I’ll explain it from the Majjhima Nikāya. Don’t take it that without the dawn period the sun will come out. It’s impossible. Insight right view comes before Path right view and it will follow later(after). Vipassanā right view is pre-nascence right view(purejarika), the first one has to develop. Have to contemplate the impermanence of the conditioned phenomena of the mind-body process. Wrong view has 3-stages; the coarse, the mild and the refined stage (active, stimulated, latent). Impermanence can stop only the coarse and the mild ones, can’t deal with the refined one. This is leaving for the Path to do the job. (Sayadaw explained the 3-stages of wrong view with examples.) You want me to knock your head! The angry mother scolds her naughty boy. This comes out from the stimulated one. In the real knocking of the head becomes the coarse one. The one practices vipassanā, the coarse and the mild ones not arise. But the latent wrong view of thinking as this is my son is existing. Only the Path can uproot this one. It’s difficult to shave the hairs on the baby head. The hairs on the man are more easy to shave. Path Knowledge is liked shaving the hairs of a baby. It’s liked also after clearing up the forest and uprooting the trees. I’ll tell you what happen in the body during the arising of the Path Knowledge. Not seeing the arising and passing away of the khandhas. Dukkha nirodo – Dukkha is ceased. It’s liked using 1,000 pots of water pouring on the body and the heat element is cooling down, experiencing as all the coolness pile-up and a peaceful nature. It seems in this way. Don’t know the khandhas exist, only happiness exists. If, it is appearing in this way, the real Path Knowledge, nothing exists but the existence of peaceful nature, without any kind of burden but lightness only. Seeing dukkha ceases and not knowing the khandhas exist. The reason for the peacefulness is the heat element of diṭṭhi kilesa (defilement of wrong view) has been extinguished. The view is peaceful and the knowing is cool. Nibbāna is near. It’s far because you don’t go straightly. If defilements come in and deceive you, and not straight anymore. Kilesas are burdened living beings by disturbing them on the straight way to Nibbāna. Whatever suffering is the working of defilements. There are 16 kilesas. If you do sitting meditation increase the time span and sit with determination (adhitthāna). The Buddha mentioned that by contemplating impermanence was the straight way to Nibbāna.

T5 Knowing that the khandhas not exsit is vipassanā sammādiṭṭhi. The practice of knowing the khandhas not exist is the function of insight. We had the desire, so we got it. Nibbāna is without the khandhas. If this knowledge becomes longer, Nibbāna is closer. (Insight knowledge seeing the khandhas not exist for momentarily and in the Path Knowledge the khandha is ceased. If khandhas exist in Nibbāna, it will become the Noble Truth of Dukkha (This point is very important for every Buddhist whatever his/her believed system and not to be confused.) Therefore, it was true in the commentary of Saṁyutta Nikāya that insight knowledge was the nearest to the knowledge of Nibbāna. Therefore, vipassanā nyan is seeing Nibbāna partially. Nibbāna and insight knowledge, both of them see the non-existing of khandhas. Their differences are: Nibbāna always do not see the khandhas, and insight knowledge is not seeing momentarily. If you have developed insight knowledge, you can die happily. Continued to practice diligently will realize Nibbāna. Do you need paramis? You need only practice diligently with the 4-supreme efforts. (Sammappadāna – see in the factors of enlightenment – Bodhi–pakkhiya–dhamma) It’s now clear on the ways of seeing. Therefore, insight knowledge disbanding the khandhas is true. In the Saṁyutta Nikāya commentary, it was mentioned more than that. During the seeing of anicca, craving and clinging have no chance to come in. Therefore, insight knowledge is disbanding the khandhas and also craving. It’s similar to carry 2 baskets with a pole. Disbanding the khandhas is seeing Nibbāna temporarily. Disbanding craving is cutting off the round of rebirth (samsāra). So the Buddha said, insight knowledge was many times excellent than ordinary wholesome dhamma. Path Knowledge is abandoning the khandhas and also defilements, and seeing Nibbāna which is without khandhas(3-functions). When the Path Knowledge appears, no need to ask others, you will see no khandhas. Seeing Nibbāna and no kilesa comes. Vipassanā Knowledge cannot see Nibbāna. The differences are 3-functions and 2-functions.

When the Path Knowledge appears and khandhas disappear. Not there is nothing. Knowing that dukkha is ceased and seeing Nibbāna. Vipassanā knowledge and supramundane knowledge (lokkuttara nyan) are quite different. Don’t go and asking for someone. The Buddha taught exactly. In the working process of vipassanā practice only 2 of the vipassanā knowledge and Path Knowledge exist. The other knowledges between them are the records of appearances and views. In reality all of them are vipassanā knowledge. (In one of the Sayadaw’s talks he gave a simile of sharpening a knife. Beginning to the end is the same knife but it becomes sharper and sharper.)

Now talk about the right view of Fruition Knowledge. There are 2 kinds of fruition. Fruition follows behind the Path Knowledge, and the other behind the insight knowledge. Fruition follows behind the Path Knowledge is automatic, therefore akāliko- giving the result without delay. It comes by itself- Dhammaniyama-Dhamma procedure, similar to the kamma and the result. The Path is volitional kamma and Fruition is result. Nibbāna always exists. You will ask, “Everyone can see it?” It exists for someone with the practice, without the practice not exists. Factors of enlightenment can happen only by practicing with the 4-supreme efforts. After the Path ceases the Fruition appears. What is the benefit for its appearance? What is it disbanding? You can ask these questions, no khandhas anymore so what it is to be disbanded for? The Path kills the coarse defilements and Fruition the refined one. To show an example, you pour a cup of water on a red burning charcoal and it becomes black. Don’t go and touch it. It’s still possessing with the heat power.

Fruition appears for cooling the heat power. All your defilements are very coarse. It kills the left-over refined kilesa vapour. So Fruition is more powerful than the Path. Seeing Nibbāna and killing the refined kilesa vapour (2-functions). Between the two; fighting at war and making peace, making peace is more difficult. I will tell the Fruition follows behind the Path. Yogi with the weak knowledge(nyan) follows by 3-fruition mind moments. For the sharp one is 2-mind moments. And then followed by bhavanga cittas and reviewing knowledge (paccavekkhana nyan). This is the Fruition follows behind the Path.

T6 If you develop to the level of vipassanā sammādiṭṭhi and become a small stream-enterer. And then develop up-to magga sammādiṭṭhi become a sotāpanna (The commentary used the term cūla-sotāpanna because both share the same view, but he/she is still unstable.) For the yogis to know what level in their practice, I will tell the mind of a sotāpanna before hand, so that one can check for oneself. And then will tell about entering into the Fruition state. I will use the Saccaka Sutta from the Majjhima Nikāya. “Ordinary people’s views are unstable. So they are changing religions. But the disciples of yours are not in this way. What is the reason of it?” Saccaka asked the Buddha. “My disciples are not heard from what others said but by seeing themselves directly. Therefore, their views are not changing and never convert into other religions. ”Answered the Buddha, I will tell the right view of a sotāpanna.(Sayadaw recited the Pali verses.) The Buddha taught them that mind/body phenomena were impermanent. They practiced accordingly what had been taught and realized it directly. Looking at one’s own khandhas or others’ khandhas and seeing that there is no person or being. And then have the clear view and free from doubt – (1)Tinnam-viccikicso. First beginning to have this right view. That is during the practice. In every day activities the usages such as my children, my properties are not matter. People can’t dispel doubt that changing religion. No thinking with doubt – (2)Vikicca katankato; Is it a person or a being? Can make a decision that only dhamma arising and dhamma passing away. It becomes niyata (fixed in destiny). To Nibbāna only and not anywhere. Become brave or confidence – (3) Vesarijjapatto – making the brave or confident decision that there is no person or being. To get this knowledge is not difficult. You have the good teacher. I always teach you to this point. Everytime mind is arising and feeling arising, it’s only mind and feeling. Are there any person or being with them? Only hearing consciousness is arising and disappearing. Is there anything with them? Everyday I am teaching for entering the stream. Even in worldly matters we have to prepare for safety in livelihood. In the same way should prepare for the supramundance. Even should care more about it. I am teaching to you that there are only impermanence of mind-body process and the process of cause and effect. Now, you know these by indirectly. Not ending up at other people mouth. (4)Aparapaccayo – means directly experience and not from others. True dhamma is right by the Buddha or me. But should be the right of the personal knowing. One’s own decision is more important. With other saying is ending up at perception(saññā) and not wisdom(paññā). If a person equal to these 4-points is stable in the Buddha’s Teaching.

Whatever religions come and use whatever ways to converse are impossible. Fixed in Nibbāna without any changing. However rich with full of wealth and gems are not the real happiness. Even with these things can be in trouble and suffering. Only enter the stream is completed with the real happiness and gems of faith(saddha), virtue(sīla), learning(suta), generosity(caga), shame & fear of wrong doing(hiri & ottapa), wisdom (paññā) (the 7-jewels of a noble person).

These 4-points of view are always there wherever someone becomes a stream enterer. This Dhamma is not difficult. The whole Kuru Country (during the Buddha’s time, and now is the New Deli area) practiced the Satipatthanā and had the good results. With right attention (yonisomanasikara) will fulfill it. Everytime when feeling is arising and knowing it as just feeling is right attention. If mind arising as mind and then with this right attention, it’s easy to contemplate impermanence from behind. It’s important to have right attention whatever is arising. The Buddha mentioned in the Anguttara Nikāya was by right attention whatever not increasing dhamma (phenomena) increase and whatever increasing dhamma develop. Even if you can’t give a label to the arising phenomenon and knowing that dhamma arising is good enough. By learning(pariyatti) can give the labels. Without learning how can you do it. By knowing that dhamma arising is right attention. In the Buddha’s time Suppabuddha the leper and drunkard were no learning, but they had right attention. Knowing as dhamma arising is right attention. It’s not a person/ not a being and passing away. By following behind with this knowing is vipassanā. Follow behind the Path are 2 or 3 fruitions(phalas). Follow behind vipassanā knowledge are many fruitions. I will explain a little about in fruition state. At the beginning seeing dhamma arising and passing away but without analyzing the Noble Truth such as – this is the Truth of Dukkha (Dukkha Sacca) etc. And then all the impermanences suddenly cease and change into Nirodha Sacca. From impermanence to Nibbāna without the Path Knowledge. The fruition mind stays with Nibbāna. Fruition minds are arising continuously but they are also changing. And seeing Nibbāna uncountably. This is in fruition state. Yogi is staying with the fruition mind.

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Nalorakk
文章: 232
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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 2-2

文章 Nalorakk » 2018-12-14, 16:19

[02] Breaking the Shells Of Ignorance
20th June to 22nd June, 1960 (In Amarapura)

( In these talks, Sayadaw talked about the 5-kinds of light: 1. Kammasakata Sammādiṭṭhi- belief in kamma and its result. Good action has the good result etc. 2. Nāma-rūpaparicheda Nyan – knowledge of the mind and body. 3. Paccaya parigaha Nyan – knowledge of cause & effect process. 4. Vipassanā Nyan or Lakkahana Nyan – knowledge of anicca. 5. Magga Nyan – Nibbāna.)

T1 The 5-layer shells of ignorance are the 5-darkness. In the Discourse of Turning the Wheel of Dhamma, āloko udapadi – light arose means breaking away the 5-layer of shells of the darkness. (1) If you believe in action(kamma) and the result of it, the 1st layer of ignorance(avijjā) is broken. (2) Understanding of the mind & body, the 2nd layer of ignorance is broken. Mind is the master and body is the slave. (3) The 3rd is understanding the Dependent Arising or the connection of cause & effect process appear from the 6-sense doors. Then the 3rd layer of ignorance is broken. Sāriputta by hearing the short teaching of cause & effect and entered the stream. If the shells of ignorance of (1)(2)(3) are broken and call cūla-sotāpanna (Definition by the commentary – small stream enterer, because with sotāpanna both share the same view.) Free from the painful rebirth for next life. Dispel wrong view by knowing is ñāta pariñña. In next life not fall into painful rebirth, but the 5-layers of darkness can recover up again. Therefore, must dispel it by practice. (4) The 4th is by practice and seeing impermanence and ignorance will break off. If you can’t discern it, the process of continuity covers up impermanence. Then you have to go back to No.3. (5) If the process of impermanence is ended , the 5th layer of ignorance is broken.

T2 [(This is an important talk on vipassanā practice. Talk about more detailed on anicca. Sayadaw quoted from Milindapañha. King Milinda requested Ven. Nagasena to teach him how to develop vipassanā. He gave a simile. A tiger during hunting a prey, it hides himself in a bush where other animals used to come. When an animal approaches near, it jumps on the prey and kills it. If he is chasing the animal may be never catch it. In this simile, the tiger is yogi, watching is sati, bush is samādhi, jumping on and killing the prey is paññā. Watching and seeing the animal approaching is sati, killing the prey is sampajāna ~ clear comprehension. So the whole process is sati- sampajāna ~ mindfulness and clear comprehension.

After that Sayadaw continued the instruction based on Sāriputta’s saying: Kayamimun Sammāsatha, parijhanatha punapunam, kayesabhavum viditvana, dukkhaantam karisatha ~ Observe this mind-body process again and again continuously will see it arising and ceasing nature clearly with knowledge. And then strive on until dukkha come to an end. According to Sayadaw, Nagasena’s instruction is for beginners, because in the beginning of practice samādhi is not very strong enough, so that only can discern the body coarse sensations. After long periods of practice and samādhi develop, that can discern the subtler sensations more and more as it shows its true nature. Discerning more will understand another nature as dukkha, with continue practice dhkkha will come to an end. This is Sāriputta’s instruction.) Nagasena’s instruction is Sati-Sampajāna. Sāriputta’s instruction is bhavetabba and pahatabba (Developing & abandoning). Developing the insight knowledges and abandoning of kilesas. After discerning anicca, observing again and again continuously(bhavetabba) until dukkha end(pahatabba).]

Watching is sati. Caught on the prey of impermanence is Sampajāna. Sampajāna means seeing rightly. It is paññā. Samatha and vipassanā are including together. You have sati so can catch on it. If you can catch on the arising and passing away, the 4th ignorance is fallen away. Of the 5-layers of ignorance it’s important for the 4th avijjā to be fallen away. Impermanence is always there. It’s also equal to Ehi-passiko. After that no need to watch. Nodding your head at whatever the khandha is showing you. Watching at it is Nagasena’s instruction. After that nodding your head only is Sāriputta’s instruction. Bhavetabba ~ by developing of seeing one’s own dukkha and knowing that it’s a great dukkha. With this making decision and dhkkha ceases. Watching and catching is for beginner in vipassanā. Sāriputta asked to observe the dhamma which is showing us its nature again and again. And then you will know the story of your khandas thoroughly. Sāriputta taught up to Dukkha Sacca. This knowledge comes in when you see impermanence again and again. And then suddenly with a blip and there is nothing to contemplate. Knowing that the greatest dukkha is not there anymore. It’s the Path Knowledge of Nibbāna. It’s true that no khandha is Nibbāna. Impermanent khandha is vipaka vutta (Resultant Round of Existence). Impermanence cease is free from the vutta. Therefore, in the mind it appears like lightness and happiness. This is no need for paramitas(perfection). Only need for effort(viriya). The 4th ignorance can be broken by watching and catching. The 5th is only by knowing Dukkha thoroughly. When the Path Knowledge arises, what happen in the body? By seeing Dukkha continuously and this Dukkha ending will arise, and then follow by the knowledge of not wanting it. At the time tanhā (craving) is extinguished with a blip and it ceases. It’s liked cooling by pouring with 1,000 buckets of cold water.

T3 (In this talk Sayadaw mentioned in brief the 10 insight corruptions when anicca lakkhana nyan become mature.)
During seeing impermanence goose flesh can be raised up. Don’t be afraid. Vipassanā Knowledge become sharp with goose flesh and gladness arise. Physical body becomes light. Don’t take care of these things. Contemplate only impermanence. The body seems to be disappeared and rising up. In the process of practice, level 4th is important. The one who discern anicca can make this decision that in this life will transcend dukkha. It need to see the impermanence without break and don’t relax in your effort. The passing away of phenomenon is before, and the seeing is after. Whatever is arising, have to know it not there, not there. At this level only the last layer of ignorance exists. Your duty is just contemplating impermanence. Nothing has to do. The Dhamma will carry on its own functioning. Without the knowledge of past lives, you don’t know where you came from. But one thing is sure, that was dhamma sent you to here. In the same way the knowledge of impermanence will send you to the Path Knowledge. The place where its cessation is disbanding or abandoning the khandha’s ignorance and craving. Khandhas disappear. Not only disbanding the present khandha but also the future one. The 4th level disbands kilesa only, not the khandhas. Path Knowledge is both. By adandoning the khandhas and it’s disappearing because it has the body. By abandoning tanhā and its energy power is gone because it has no body.

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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 2-3

文章 Nalorakk » 2018-12-14, 16:21

[03] The Five Darkness & The Five Lights
4th May to 8th May, 1961(In Mandalay)

(These 5 talks are the same subject of the above 3 talks, entitled Breaking The Shells of Ignorance. But the times and places were different and also the contents.)

T1 [Sayadaw mentioned that when the Bodhisatta meditated on the day of his enlightenment, with the development of vipassanā knowledge, his body emitted a kind of light(obasa). It was so strong that spreading upwards to the Akanitha Brahma World and downwards to the Great Eight Hells. All living beings are under the influence of avijjā(darkness), born and die again and again without ending. Sayadaw based on the Suttanipata gave 5 talks on avijjā and vijjā (ignorance and true knowledge). (1) The First light is Kammasakata Sammadiṭṭhi ~ Right view on kamma: Doing good has good result etc. Even many human beings don’t have this light. Sayadaw mentioned some of them, Christians, Muslims and hill tribes.]

How we were be in the whole of samsāra? (Round of existence) The Buddha said never had the light and covered with only darkness; born in the darkness, were living in the darkness and dying in the darkness of ignorance. (He mentioned the Buddha’s Light.) With the Buddha’s Light, living beings knew that a Buddha was arisen. Some human beings had the chances to rely on this Light. But you all were not have this chance. Under the influence of ignorance, we created kammas. Therefore, these 5-khandhas were never free from the shadow of darkness. We created kammas under ignorance, so born under its shadow. Whoever got Dukkha Sacca because of under the darkness. Whoever discerns Dukkha Sacca has the Light. Even you had a happy rebirth don’t take it as good luck. It’s sure that in many of your lives you did not get the Light. Now with the chances if you don’t get it and will never be. (Sayadaw gave 2 examples for under the influence of darkness with earth worm and butterfly. Many of his talks were foods for the heart.) In talking about the Noble Truth (Ariya Sacca), I can’t even spare dāna, sīla and samatha. Whatever worldly happiness is still under the avijjā. Brahma Worlds are under its shadows. Some people think human world is not good enough so want to go to the heavenly worlds. All these are changing the names only. (Sabbe Saṅkhāra Dukkha~ All conditioned phenomena are dhkkha.) (Then he explained many things in daily life under the influence of avijjā.)

In the Discourse of Turning The Wheel of Dhamma, vijjā udapādi ~ means knowing the Noble Truth. Not become vijjā that all are under the darkness. The province of ignorance is very wide. In the 31 realms of existence wherever you go, never free from under his influence (except the 5 pure abodes of noble being connection with the 4th Jhana.). Start getting the sotāpatti magga (the knowledge of stream entrance) and start getting the light. If not, you are going liked an earth worm. If the 5-darkness cover up, the 5-lights will never come out. Ignorance are 5 kinds but most people know only one. (1) Kammasakata Nyan~even this knowledge all the animals and other religions don’t have. Animal rebirths are uncountable. Moving around in the 4-painful births. No.1 ignorance is not a small one. Human beings, heavenly beings and Brahma gods have wrong view. Even you get this right view, still covering with the other 4 darkness.

T2 [Another meaning of avijjā is not knowing of what should be known and knowing of what should not be known. Sayadaw mentioned morden science and technology developments as wrong knowledge (miccha nyan). He gave examples of atomic bomb and large scale meat productions. We can say any knowledge harmful is miccha nyan. (2) The 2nd light is Nāma-rūpa Paricheda Nyan ~ Knowledge of the mind and body. (3) Paccaya Pariggaha Nyan ~ Knowledge of Cause & Effect process. (4) Vipassanā Nyan or Lakkhana Nyan ~ Knowledge of the 3-signs of universal characteristics. (5) Magga Nyan ~ Nibbāna. In living beings 5-kinds of darkness(avijjā) covered up the above 5-kinds of light(vijjā). For the 1st darkness, Sayadaw gave the story of Sodeyya Brahman who was stingy and not believed in kamma. Later died and born as a dog in his house. His son Subha treated this dog very well. One day the Buddha passed by his house and the dog was barking at him. The Buddha spoke to the dog that after death he would born in hell. Subha heard this and met the Buddha. The Buddha suggested him to feed the dog with milk gruel and when it fell into sleepiness stroke its body gently. Later asked the dog where some of the treasures hid by Sodeyya. Subha did what the Buddha said and then found the treasures hid by his father. The dog died and born in hell. For the 2nd kind of Light, Sayadaw did not mention much about it in this talk, because most of his disciples already had listened many years for his talks. He said simply the desire(chanda) to do something is the mind and the movements of the physical body is material. For the 3rd, he said that understanding of Paticcasamupāda is not enough, because it starts from avijjā >saṅkhāra…etc, it’s the letters of Dependent Arising (see the 12-Links). Must understand khandha Paticcasamupāda. Every khandha Paticcasamupāda arising starts from consciousness (viññāna) e-g, eye consciousness(seeing), ear consciousness(hearing) etc.]

Avijjā is not knowing of what should be known and knowing of what should not be known. It’s very bad dhamma. In the western countries there are many competitions. They are knowing which are not good to know (He gave some examples.) Five darkness and 5 Lights come from the Suttanipata and Patisambida Pali. Christians and Mohamadins are even not believe in kamma and its result. They only believe in permanent God and Mohamad. Don’t talk about the animals. Even in human beings very few populations believe in it. (He told the story of Sodeyya Brahman). If you do merits offer with the knowledge of Sacca Nyan (Noble Truth).

T3 [In every talk Sayadaw always started with Samvega-sense of urgency to transcend Dukkha. He pointed out wrong views(diṭṭhis), on craving(tanhā) or pointed out disciples’ mistakes and weakness in worldly life etc. So that develop urgency for practice. And then started the main point for the talk. Always based on the Truth of Dhamma (Sacca Dhamma) for the practice and realization. Wanted his disciples to remember what he taught that every talk had repetitions. Sometimes asked questions for their understanding. His style of teachings is very similar to the Buddha and some of his great disciples. Most of them were an hour talk. If a subject topic was not finished, in next talk he mentioned that again and made them remembered it.]

In our whole round of existence, we were covered up with ignorance that did not get the Path Knowledge. As much as many lives we were jumping into the fire of ageing and death. Therefore, we were always in suffering. Living beings are covering up with the 5 layer shells of ignorance (He compared it with the simile of a chick inside the egg.) Some had dispelled their wrong views intellectually but when they encountered with problems and difficulties, the 2nd konwledge did not arise. These were evidences for the power of ignorance. Desire to do something is the mind (nāma). Follow the desire to act is the body. This is knowing the mind & the body as roughly. 3.The knowledge of knowing cause & effect – not knowing the process of dependent arising of the khandhas is covering up by the darkness of ignorance. Even you can’t see the impermanence; whatever arising in the body is only the 5-khandhas. Knowing it as not a living being and not me is a little better. Everytime khandhas arise knowing as it is only khandhas, and No.2-ignorance fall away. The important of dependent arising is becoming clear. It’s not starting from avijjā (ignorance). It’s the letters of dependent arising (the12-links). It starts from sense-consciousness such as seeing, hearing, smelling etc. These are our present moments processes. After seeing and wanting, then craving (tanhā) arise. And then become clinging / attachment (upādānam) arises. Causes & effects are connecting or continuously arising. Where are there any person, living being or me? So No.3 ignorance falls away.

T4 [Sayadaw continued the 3rd Light. He said some of his disciples after listened his talks realized that their parents and grandparents were died without knowledge about these kinds of Light. Knowing the khandhas arise and the continuity of causes & effects have these Lights (No.2 & No.3). Meeting together of inner and outer sense bases(ayatanas) (sense doors and sense objects), sense consciousness arises and then follow with vedāna, tanhā, upādānam & kamma etc. So, wrong view and doubt are clear up. It’s the knowledge of cūla-sotāpanna and next life will not fall into painful rebirth. But it’s not very reliable and can be lost again in the future. He gave the story of Subrahma Devata because of his good kamma in the past and born as a deva. But he also knew that after 7 days would die and born in hell. But later with a teaching of the Buddha he entered the stream and changed his destination. For the 4th Light to see the anicca khandha (impermanence of the aggregates). Any khandha arises, seeing its impermanence. The khandhas always show the 3-lakkhanas (anicca, dukkha, anatta). Why don’t we see it? Because of avijjā covers it up. Sayadaw said most of his disciples already arrived this stage and closer to the last Light. They must work hard to dispel this darkness.]

If talk about the power of ignorance, 31-realms of existence are the graveyards of living beings. Brahma worlds are for wise people, human and celestial worlds are for good people and the 4 painful places are for foolish people. 31-realms are the provinces of ignorance. These places are his arrangements for them. Even some people are worshipping the Brahma God (The Creator). They are worshipping the ignorance. His directions are cemeteries. Don’t choose any of them. All are without blessings (Because of Dukkha Sacca). Among the 31-realms, wherever place you like and it is only foolishness. Ignorance is liked a fisherman setting up the 3-nets of kama (sensual planes), rūpa (material jhana planes) and arūpa (immaterial jhana planes) for the fishes (living beings). Whatever living beings come into these nets are beaten to death by his (jara-marana) old age and death men. Which one of the nets is better than others? Even many human beings don’t have the first Light. They think foods and drinks are created by God. Births are created by God. They don’t believe in kamma and result. Therefore, other faiths are covering-up with all the 5-darkness of ignorance. In the Buddha First Discourse – vijjā udapādi ~ true knowledge arises, nānam udapādi, āloko udapādi ~ Light arose are this 5th Light.

The No.2 Knowledge of mind & body is similar to the boatman and the boat. With only by the boatman (the mind) can’t arrive to the other shore and with only by the boat (body) is also the same. (3) Understanding of the Dependent Arising ~ these are natural procedures (Dhammaniyama)and continuation of cause & effect phenomena. There is no me, no person, no living beings. And with this knowledge, doubt is overcome. This 3rd ignorance is falling away. Don’t be only satisfied with the 1,2, &3 Lights. During with these Lights can be fallen back into darkness again. As example Subrahma Devata arrived in heaven by the first Light. With avijjā, saṅkhāra ~ doing black kamma sure to fall into painful rebirth. The 4th ignorance covers-up the 3-lakkhanas. So you can’t discern impermanence. Here in this group (Sayadaw’s disciples) many discern anicca but still avijjā left over. So darkness can be come back, except the practice of vipassanā all other matters are the business of ignorance. I am very glad if you discern anicca. Why? Only dimness is left. If you put more effort, it will totally light up, and sure to be free from the dangers of painful births and 31-realms of existence.

T5 Becoming vijjā is seeing Nibbāna. On the way to Nibbāna by going with the sign posts are better. By knowing the levels on the way are no need to put everything on paramis. Only need to fulfill the level. You all start from the 4th level (i.e contemplate impermanence because most of his disciples are knowing the lights of 1,2,3 by listening to his talks for many years already.) You have to contemplate for discerning them. If you see it, don’t be negligent and will be realize the 5th light of Sotāpatti magga (Knowledge of Stream Entrance). It’s important for the 4th to mature. How to make it maturity? (He gave the example of building a fire by rubbing of 2-pieces of bamboo.) If, it’s becoming hot, it’s the sign of the fire for coming out. If you are continuing without stopping for rubbing it, and it’s sure the fire will come out. For the fire to come out or not is depending on the effort of that person. Therefore, the 4th is liked rubbing the 2-pieces of bamboo, the 5th liked the coming out of fire. Without the 4th, and then the 5th is impossible. The text of Namarūpa Pariccheda (a Pali Text) mentioned that by contemplation and discerning more anicca and the gapping become narrowing between them. Later the contemplative mind disbands anicca and run into the unconditioned Nibbāna. The contemplative mind goes straight towards impermanence means it’s becoming mature. At that time don’t let any matters come in and continue to do the contemplation. Later with a blip the contemplative mind is discarding the impermanence. The khandhas only have impermancnec, so you will only see impermanence. The 2 aniccas are saṅkhāras ~ conditioned phenomena (i.e the object & the mind). The mind(nyan) runs into Nibbāna and the ending of anicca. Therefore Nibbāna is near, and not far from us.

Without the 4th ignorance will be discerned anicca. Among the 5-ignorance, the 4th is the important one. It makes you not knowing the reality of existence. It’s hiding between anicca & nyan(knowledge). Sometimes you discern it and sometimes not. At the time avijjā is thinner you see it and when it’s thick you can’t. How to correct it? I am sitting quite a long time now and can’t see impermanence. Maybe I have no paramis. Don’t think it in this way. It needs the method to expel avijjā. Return to the Paticcasamupāda process, the 3rd light. Whatever arising now is for dying. With this knowledge the 4th ignorance falls away. This is important for the yogis. If not, indolence will come in the practice. May be you will think, I don’t have the paramis and get up and run away from the problem. Now, you watch and observe it. If you don’t see anicca, it’s sure that ignorance is covering up them. Retreat back. Looking for the arising of Paticcasamupāda ~ the 3rd light. As an example return to the breath, there is a wanting to breath in & out. If you see it arising and ignorance falls away. After that, continue to contemplate all the new arisings. These 2 points are very important. I am concerning that near the end of the practice, you will give up. Even you can’t find the newly arising dhamma, the breath is always there. The desire to breath in & out. Both of them are impermanence. After getting the evidence, whatever follow behind are anicca. Return to the 3rd and arrive back to the 4th. Sometimes it seems that nothing is happening. By not knowing how to expel ignorance and take it on paramis is wrong.

Without seeing the No.3, you can’t come to No.4 (not seeing or knowing the arising). Without the No.3, darkness (wrong view) falls away, by sitting the whole day and it doesn’t work. Follow to catch on the arising Paticcasamupāda khandha. If seeing consciousness arises just know it. When hearing consciousness arises just know it. If you can catch on it, ignorance falls away. If not the whole day sitting will not work. If you find out the beginning again will be continued to catch on the arising process. No.4 is the mind staying with anicca. If you discern the increasing rate of the impermanence, the 4th ignorance has fallen away. But after that don’t let the mind to think of “I will get Nibbāna”. When this mind-state arises, ignorance comes back. The rate of anicca is going down. In my experience of teaching people, most of them fell back at this place. The wanting tanhā come in and hinder the practice. Therefore, fall back to No.3. Whatever the rate of impermanence, the mind (nyan) has to follow it. Don’t let any mind-state come in. I am concerning your falling back, if not I will not talk about it. This point is very important. A place where the practice can be gone down. The yogis’ duty is to contemplate for maturity. To see Nibbāna is the duty of discernment (Nyan). From near the No.5 go down to No.3 is quite a loss. Therefore No.4 is quite important. By seeing more on dukkha and wanting to escape from it.

It’s like sharpening a knife. Continuing to sharpen the knife, it becomes sharper and sharper by itself. Nothing to do with our wishes. Nibbāna is also the same, nothing to do with prayers. Only concern with the effort (It’s interesting to know that in the factors of enlightenment: viriya is 9times, sati 8times, pañña 5times, ekaggata-samādhi 4times, saddha 2times etc). Don’t forget the simile of rubbing 2 bamboos to build a fire. The contemplative mind (nyan) is turning towards Nibbāna ~ Is that means khandhas don’t have anicca? Not at all. The Buddha already mentioned that, Sabbe-saṅkhāra anicca – all conditioned phenomena are anicca. Discernment (nyan) becomes mature that the 5th ignorance falls apart and Nibbāna appears. If, it’s not changing into Nibbāna then still not mature yet. Continue to contemplate anicca. After the Path Knowledge (Magga Nyan – Nibbāna) not difficult for entering the fruition state. Like a fire which already has the power of acceleration.

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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 2-4

文章 Nalorakk » 2018-12-14, 16:22

[04] Transcending Time
24th August 1958

[This is one of the Buddha’s teachings on time and space, explained by Sayadaw with humor. It looks like a Buddhist science and philosophy. It reminds us Einstein’s theory on time/space. He discovered more than 3 dimensions. The Buddha discovered directly multiple dimensions and the state of no dimension or timelessness and spacelessness.]
Morning and night times are eating the khandha(eyes, ears..etc.). Every day the body becomes weak and getting old. Don’t stay under the sun and moon. When getting old everything is lost. Whatever khandha you get, it will never free from under the sun and moon. So always eaten by them. Good kamma and intelligence are reducing every day. Chickens, pigs, animals are eaten by human beings but they (men) themselves are also eaten by time. Without the sun and moon there will be no time. Chickens in a farm will be eaten by their master is for sure every day. Therefore 31-realms of existence are liked chicken cages.

Asking for someone when this person had died is the same as when he had eaten by time. There is no sun and moon in Nibbāna so it’s timeless. There is also no 4-elements (earth, water, fire & air elements), only with happiness and liberation. We were eating by time for uncountable lives and time-span. We must try to re-eat them. First, we have to eat time. Second, must come out from time span. If you are making prayer to be a rat ~ it means may I be eaten by cat. Praying to become a deva or Brahma also praying for a rat. Getting old is eaten by time. Dying is killing by time. After eaten become clean(disappear). (Sayadaw continued to teach vipassanā practice by using the Paticcasamupāda.) As an example a desire to eat something arise (here the mind) and observe it. On the body if itchy sensation arises, don’t follow with the hand. Differentiate them as a little itching, a middling itching and a strong itching. After a little itching and then a middling itching arises. All of them arising one by one. Observing their differences. Analysing the feelings and cutting of the continuity (i.e santati). After pleasant feeling (sukha vedāna) ceases, the small unpleasant feeling (dukkha vedāna) arises. After the small unpleasant feeling ceases, the middling unpleasant feeling arises. After the middling one ceases the strong one arises. After the strong one ceases the pleasant feeling re-appears. (Here Sayadaw gave an example of an unpleasant feeling process and how to contemplate them.) Knowing the spaces between them is the present knowledge. In this way we must eat the future time with Path Knowledge. Then we shall transcend time-span and liberate from their eating.

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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 2-5

文章 Nalorakk » 2018-12-14, 16:24

[05] Nibbāna: The Ending Of Dukkha
5th September 1958

Call it in short Nibbāna. Make it in Noble Truth, then Dukkha Nirodha Sacca ~ The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Dukkha. No khandha in Nibbāna. You must ask without a khandha how can we live? There are 2-types of khandha: khandha afflicted by wound and non-afflicted by wound. As an example, you have a wound on your body. After treatment it’s disappeared. Before you are living with the wound. After the cure you are living with no wound. In the same way you are living with khandha dukkha. No dukkha then you are living with none of them. You must say Nibbāna is living with no dukkha, and the disappearance of dukkha. Because you can’t discern the truth of khandha dukkha that the problem of how can we live without the khandha has arisen. If you take Nibbāna as nothingness it becomes a concept. It includes in the 4-realities (paramattha dhamma) that its existence is clear. You don’t know dukkha and saying Nibbāna is not exist. All of you don’t like without a khandha. But khandha is Dukkha Sacca, therefore you must know Nibbāna is without the dukkha khandha. No connection with any dukkha. Noble beings (arahants) wanted to leave the khandhas behind because they did not want to live with the great dukkha. They really saw the true happiness that wanting to abandon it. You may ask how it’s be ?

The process of this body is ageing, sickness and death. There is also a nature of no ageing, no sickness and no death. Only by knowing about the khandha you will know Nibbāna. First to know about the khandha. You know about khandha and then you know dukkha. By knowing dukkha is wanting to abandon it. If you really want to know Nibbāna, put effort to know the khandha dukkha. Don’t look for a person where he has gone after dukkha has ceased, because it’s different nature you can’t find it. Don’t take it as not exists. If you are in the same nature you will find it. If kilesas are dried up even you are not there yet but you will see it. Making your own decision only when you get the glasses of right view. At first even the Bodhisatta knew Nibbāna by speculation. As an example, if there is heat there will be coolness. It exists and so you see it. If not exists and you will not see it. (See the Dhammacakka-pavuttana Sutta) It doesn’t exist as dukkha but exist as without dukkha. Really exists as a nature of happiness. Looking anywhere in the khandha you only find impermenent dukkha sacca. If not, a yogi cannot see dukkha and sukkha. A true yogi will find it. You don’t know where dukkha ceases so you don’t go there. Although you are going towards dukkha without knowing.

Path Knowledge has 4-functions. Like the example of a burning oil lamp: dispel darkness and light appear are the fire. Dry up the oil and the wick disappears are also the fire. Here, darkness is discerning dukkha, the light is knowing dukkha ceases ~ Nibbāna, oil drying up is kilesas, the wick is the disappeared khandha. Someone who is seeing dukkha cease will never confuse, because after the Path Knowledge follow by fruitions (phala cittas) and the reviewing mind(paccavekkhana)

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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 2-6

文章 Nalorakk » 2018-12-14, 16:25

[06] The Important Of Right Attention
14th January 1959

[Sayadaw started his talk with the 4-dhamma verses composed by him. (1) Any conditioned phenomenon (saṅkhāra) is impermanent and truth of dukkha. (2) Taking impermanence as me and mine become attachment, the cause of dukkha(samudaya). (3) All the impermenence of mind-body cease is Nibbāna. (4) Knowing the ending is Path Knowledge. These 4-verses are about the Four Noble Truths and also describe the practice.
In the beginning of the practice by watching the breath and calming the mind down. Most of his many closed disciples under his training had to develop up to upacāra sammādhi (acess or neighborhood concentration) for sometime. And then develop insight. But in most of his talks for general public, he asked them to do it for about 20 or 30 minutes. It was depended on people’s situations. For vipassanā by watching the breath and a saṅkhāra dhamma arises from the 6-sense doors, e.g a thought, as soon as a thought arises, knowing the breath disappears. By observing the thought it’s ceased already.
In this process without the disappearance of watching the breath, thoutht can’t arise. So the observing mind is also anicca. After the thought arises by observing it and also ceases. So the observing mind is seeing impermanence of the thought. The observing mind is yonisomanasikara – right attention. At that moment it has 5-factors; i.e sammādhi – right view, sammāsankappa – right thought, sammāsati – right mindfulness, sammāvayamo – right effort and sammāsamādiṭṭhi – right concentration. By seeing anicca (impermanence), dukkha (suffering), anatta (not-self), asubha (loathsome), anyone of the characteristics, then the yogi penetrates the dhamma. All of them are dukkha. Sāriputta gave a simile of the foot print of the elephant. (see the Mahā-hatthipadopama Sutta – the Great Elephant Foot Print Discourse, Sutta No.28, Majjhima Nikāya). Any foot print of an animal will fall into the foot print of the elephant. (i.e similar to dukkha)
According to Sayadaw, yonisomanasikara is right attention or right contemplation, equal to sammādiṭṭhi. Know anicca as anicca, dukkha as dukkha and anatta as anatta. In Sayadaw’s own words ~ “If the reality and the knowing are equal, it’s yonisomanasikara. Then the Truth of Dukkha (Dukkha Sacca) and the Truth of the Path (Magga Sacca) arise. If not equal to the reality, then ignorance (avijjā ) and craving (tanhā) arise –Samudaya Sacca or Dukkha Sacca and Samudaya Sacca arise.” ]

If you discern impermanence you are a 3-rooted person(tihetuka) and also know the truth of dukkha( Dukkha Sacca) (Tihetuka – a person was born with 3-wholesome roots, i.e non-greed, non-hatred and non-delusion.). Because, any conditioned phenomenon is impermanent and the truth of dukkha (He recited the first verse as mentioned in the beginning.). A person with yoniso (right attention) is seeing anicca. (Some Pali words became Burmese words but using in short form, such as yoniso=yonisomanasikara). Having yoniso means knowing impermanence as impermanence, dukkha as dukkha and anatta as anatta, whatever mind arises not noting as mind but as dukkha arises. At first watching with mindfulness(sati). During the watching, the mind or material phenomenon, one of them will arise. Only the watching mind not exist that another mind can arise. Therefore, the watching mind is impermanent. Again with the watching mind to contemplate the arising mind and then the arising mind is not there anymore. This is not a nothingness concept (abhava paññatti). By contemplating the existence to non-existence is vipassanā. The watching mind is the right attention mind (yonisomanasikara). Paying attention to the process of from existence to non-existence. Knowing the impermanence as impermanence. It is becoming jhānato – passto (contemplation and knowing). In the Samyuttanikāya, it explained as a contemplation and knowing person. Doing vipassanā is the task of right attention.

The first watching mind ceases and then another mind can arise. If no mind arises one will die. And then again the watching yoniso mind contemplates the new arising mind. This time knowing the arising mind of its existence to non-existence. Therefore, right attention is vipassanā. Because knowing anicca as anicca – seeing impermanence. Ignorance (not knowing), craving (greed), this me/this mine (wrong views) are dying away. Therefore, the Buddha said that yoniso is right view (Sammādiṭṭhi). So, right attention is right view. Every time discerns anicca with the 5-path factors, then you are in right attention. It becomes developing the contemplation (bhave tabba). Don’t be in the situation of what I have to contemplate. Even the Buddha taught differently according to different people. Watching whatever arising is becoming yoniso. The beginning of vipassanā is right attention. In some places what the Buddha taught on yoniso was knowledge because the 5-path factors come in together. On the 3-universal characteristics of phenomena whichever one you discern, in the end, it’s the Noble Truth of Dukkha (Dukkha Sacca). In the Sariputta’s teaching of Hatthipadopama Sutta, all the foot prints of other animals go inside the elephant’s foot print. In the same way all conditioned dhammas go inside the Noble Truth of Dukkha. Therefore, in the beginning of practice, we see the truth of dukkha. So we are contemplating the truth.
(Sayadaw recited the 4-verses of the Four Noble Truth composed by him.)
(1)Any conditioned phenomenon is anicca and the truth of dukkha.
(2)Take impermanence as me and mine become the cause of dukkha(samudaya).
(3)All the impermanence of mine/body cease is Nibbāna.
(4)Knowing the ending is Path Knowledge.
By seeing impermanence, knowing the truth of dukkha as disgusting and useless, then getting the knowledge of the truth(Sacca Nyan). [Usually Sayadaw translated dukkha as duk=disgusting, kha=useless, dukkha=disgusting & useless] By knowing the nature of oppressive(pilanatho), then getting the knowledge of functioning (Kicca Nyan). Continue to practice and seeing the ending of dukkha, then getting the Kata Nyan. The ending of dukkha is Nibbāna (Nirodha Sacca). The knowledge of knowing the ending is the Path Knowledge(Magga Nyan).

In the Suttas and commentaries there were including many ways for practice. In the end with the inclusion of yoniso is enough. Some were only for the bhikkhus. No need for the lay people to follow. In vipassanā for you all is catching the (1) with (2). (1) is the arising of the object of vipassanā, and (2) is yoniso. The beginning of vipassanā is yoniso. The meaning of yoniso is suitability. It’s the word coming out from the reality and the knowing or right contemplation. If you want to realize Nibbāna, just doing the knowing of in accordance with the reality. (Just knowing the reality)

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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 2-7

文章 Nalorakk » 2018-12-14, 16:26

[07] Bhikkhu Yamaka
16th Feb. to 23rd Feb. 1959

T1 [It was from Saṃyutta-Nikkāya . Yamaka listened to the teaching of the Buddha who mentioned his past lives. Yamaka took it as sassatadiṭṭhi- permanent view. And then after the arahant died as uccheda diṭṭhi- annihilation. (Ven. Yamaka took the unenlightened being died as sassata and the arahant as uccheda view.) Sayadaw said it’s important to know Nibbāna by direct experience. In practice it’s important to start systematically from sotāpan to arahant, i.e to destroy wrong views and later destroy tanhā. First Sāriputta dispelled Yamaka’s wrong view of annihilationism – uccheda diṭṭhi. By questioning him and Yamaka entered the stream. After that helping him destroy tanhā. Contemplating the 5-khandhas as murderer(vadako). All these were happening during the instructions. How to dispel uccheda diṭṭhi? By the D.A. of the khandhas- khandha paticcasumupāda. Sayadaw mentioned the 12-links, avijjā paccaya saṅkhāra ->viññānam ->…etc. Only causes and effects process, saṅkhāra dhamma arises and saṅkhāra dhamma ceases. No being in it but only saṅkhāra dhamma. Saṅkhāra is dukkha. Arahant dies is only saṅkhāra dies or ceases or ends, and when dukkha ends and sukha exist. Sayadaw said that this intellectual knowledge closed the door of avici hell, because the fixed wrong views die away. (The 3-niyata miccha diṭṭhi- fixed wrong views are non-action=akiriya diṭṭhi, non-cause=ahetuka diṭṭhi and non-result=natthika diṭṭhi. In the Sāmmaññaphala Sutta of Digha Nakāya , sutta No.2, The fruits of the Contemplative Life, Purana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala and Ajita Kesakambalin were teaching these views or doctrines to people)
It seems that there are many universes in space. The Buddha said a hell being who has niyata micchadiṭṭhi suffers in hell (When the time comes for its destruction has to be moved on or born again in the hell of another universe and continues to suffer). Sabbe saṅkhāra anicca-ti=All conditioned phenomena are impermanent, sabbe saṅkhāra dukkha-ti=All conditioned phenomena are dukkha, when conditioned (sankhata) ends and unconditioned (asankhata) arises, which is Nibbāna. Sankhata dukkha ends and asankhata sukha arises.]

If an arahant dies and becomes nothingness, then who will want it. If happiness is existing and people will want it. Uccheda diṭṭhi is more fearful than the 5-heavy kammas (pancanandriya kamma). There are 2-kinds of loss. The loss of knowing and unknowing. After knowing the dhamma of dispelling wrong views and not practicing it is a loss. The loss of unknowing is never heard about these kind of teaching. The loss of knowing without practice is more than the other. (The greatest loss, most Buddhists are in this group.)

(Sayadaw pointed to the chart of Dependent Arising and said) It’s only saṅkhāra arises and saṅkhāra ceases. There is no person and living being. If you know like this, uccheda diṭṭhi falls away. Only the process of saṅkhāra arises and ceases. No arahant born and died. Only the assemblage of dukkha ceased. If dukkha ends, sukha must appear. Change into sukha. If you know this much will not fall into hell. Dukkha ending that Nibbāna is called sukha. If sankhata dukkha ends, asankhata sukha must appear.

T2 [Anyone who never experienced khandha anicca and their ending couldn’t destroy wrong views. All living beings were born in the human, deva and Brahma realms are only temporary. But their permanent homes are planes of misery(apaya-bhūmis). In this talk, Sayadaw mentioned straight forwardly that whatever he said were not his own ideas but based on what the Buddha had said in the Suttas.If it’s his own ideas, then it would become Adhamma or not the Dhamma of the Buddha. And then would fall into hell. (e.g liked the Bhikkhu Kapila of the Buddha Kassapa’s Dispensation, see the Dhammapada. All Buddhists should take this point seriously.) Why Yamaka had wrong views? Because he did not understand between conventional and ultimate realities (Samuti Sacca and Paramattha Sacca).]

You can’t kill the kilesas randomly. Must do it in systematically. To become a stream enterer (sotāpanna), first kill wrong views. For the realization of the higher path knowledges have to kill tanhā(craving). (Sayadaw gave some examples to describe the mistaken idea of Yamaka’s wrong views as after the arahant dies become nothingness.) The darkness of dukkha disappears and the light of sukha appears. Something has to be existed. Darkness disappears and light appears. If light disappears and then darkness must appear. This is natural phenomena. (Sayadaw gave another example.) When you have a sore on your hand and suffer from unpleasant feeling. After cured the sore and the pleasant feeling comes in. In some of the suttas, the Buddha said that the khandha was a sore or ulcer (rogato). If you have khandha you have sore. After it was cured and disappeared. Without it is sukha. If you appreciate without the sores and you will appreciate Nibbāna. I am not talking about these things blindly. There were Pali Suttas by the Buddha and I refer to them only in simple Burmese language. If, it’s not and then it becomes Adhamma (not the teaching of the Buddha). Rogato – it doesn’t mean the unpleasant feeling of the diseases only, it means it has the changing nature of the beginning and the end.

(Sayadaw gave an example of our human life as throwing a stone up in the air.) We are now in this human life for a short period of time, like throwing a stone up in the air. After that moment will fall down again into the under worlds (The 4-unpleasantness of existences). Yamaka had wrong view because of the attachment to a person or a being. So he didn’t appreciate Nibbāna. This is depending on not understanding of between the conventional dhamma and ultimate dhamma.

T3 [Conventional truth is true only for dāna, sīla and samatha practices, but not for wisdom and Nibbāna. Reject conventional truth can create the heavy kamma, such as no father & mother etc. It’s true only for not telling lie. But by it alone can’t realize Nibbāna. By understanding ultimate truth can develop wisdom. Every being in the heart has the 3-seeds of existence, i.e wrong view, greed and delusion. Wrong view is hell seed, greed (lobha) is peta seed (hungry ghost) and delusion is animal seed. Sayadaw talked about kamma and rebirth. He used a word kamma-samangi which means craving is the storage of actions. Craving and wrong view or the origin (cause) of suffering (samudaya) kept all the kammic energy which beings were created in the round of existence, and then releasing them one by one. He gave an example of a stone which is thrown upwardly and goes upwards as long as the force is lasting. And then it stops and falls back downwardly. So, wrong view is like this. Being were born in the wholesome realms until their good kammas are lasting. After that, most of them take rebirths in the planes of misery (apaya bhūmi). Therefore destroying diṭṭhi is very important.]

After Sāriputta heard about Yamaka’s wrong view, he went to see him and questioned him as follow: “Is form permanent or impermanent ?” “It’s impermanent, Ven. Sir.” “Impermanence is sukha or dukkha?” “It’s dukkha, Ven. Sir.” “It’s dukkha, can you take the form as my form (craving), I am form (conceit) and the form is I (wrong view)?” “No, Ven. Sir.” “If you can’t take the form as I, I am and mine, then it’s self(atta) or not-self(anatta)?” “Not-self, Ven. Sir.” Sāriputta continued to question him on the other 4-khandhas in the same way. At the same time Yamaka observed his khandhas and entering the stream.

After entering the stream, Sāriputta questioned him again. “Now, do you take the 5-khandhas as an arahant?” “Ven. Sir, before without a teacher I had wrong view. Now, because of you, I have right view. I will not take the khandhas or other things as an arahant.” And then Sāriputta asked him again, “Now, if someone asks you what happen to an arahant after he passed away?” “Ven. Sir, I will answer that only dukkha arises and dukkha ceases.”

Conventional truth is the truth not arriving to Nibbāna. Ultimate truth is the truth arriving to Nibbāna. Tanhā samudaya is the storage of kammas. Therefore, the Buddha said that wanting to end dukkha had to abandon samuyada. Because of conventional truth that develop wrong view. Therefore for dispelling diṭṭhi by using ultimate truth for questioning.

T4 [The Buddha taught conventional truth for the following reasons:
1. For shame and fear (hiri and ottapa) to do bad deeds. These 2 wholesome dhammas are protecting the human world (lokapala dhamma).
2. For the kamma and result or right view on kamma.
3. For the benefit of dāna (for the donor).
4. For the 5-heavy kammas.
5. For the metta bhavana (practising of loving-kindness).
6. For the knowledge of past lives.
7. For the dāna receiver (e-g offering something to a noble person is better than an ordinary person).
8. For the sake of worldly conventions.

Conventional truth and ultimate truth are important. Without understanding samuti sacca can be fallen into unpleasant destination. Not knowing paramattha sacca can’t realize Nibbāna. In this talk Sayadaw gave an instruction on vipassanā practice based on contemplation of the mind. We are alive with 2-kinds of mind; i-e bhavanga citta (life continuum) and vitthi citta (consciousness belonging to cognitive process). May be can be translated as non-active and active minds. He used a very simple everyday language as host mind (bhavanga citta) and guest mind (vitthi citta). Guest mind can only arise by the conditioning of sense-objects and sense-doors (aroms and dvara). Host mind exist all the time without the active mind. Non-active mind is sub-conscious mind and can’t contemplate, so not include in vipassanā. The contemplative mind also guest mind. The other guest minds are only 6-types; i-e from the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind (mano) contact with the respective sense objects, such as sight, sound, smell .. etc. Sayadaw said there are also 2 guest minds; i.e samsāric guest mind( saṅkhāra) and the guest mind of the Buddha (the 5-path factors=pancaganga magga)]

T5 Wanting to become a sotāpanna has to kill diṭṭhi. For the higher path knowledges to kill tanhā. For killing diṭṭhi contemplate the mind. (Sāriputta taught Yamaka using the 5-khandhas. Sayadaw using the contemplation of mind for practical instruction with Sāriputta’s gatha of kayamimam) Following the arising and passing away of the mind process until to their ending. At the ending of all impermanence will realize Nibbāna. This is the gatha (verse) showing the way to Nibbāna. Wrong views attach to all the 5-khandhas but especially on the mind. There are 2 types of mind; guest and host minds. Mind arising by causes is guest mind. The mind always exist is host mind. Every living being alive with a mind, without a mind is dead. Host mind (bhavanga) arises between the 2 guest minds. Without their arising is death. As an example, you want to eat something arise. It’s arising and passing away. Before another mind arises bhavanga citta has to arise. Knowing them as vitthi citta and bhavanga citta (Between the 2 vitthi cittas, bhavanga citta has to arise. These are life continuum minds and they start arising from birth consciousness to until the death consciousness. Vitthi cittas are creating new kammas for the future becoming.)

T6 [The 5-khandhas are sakkāya which means it really exists. If take the khandhas as me or mine become wrong view and not really exists. Take the khandhas as me or mine as a friend lead to painful rebirths. Take the khandhas as enemies lead to Nibbāna. Sayadaw gave the examples of how the 5-khandhas are murderers. Some die because of the 4-elements, other by feeling (vedāna) …etc. In contemplation see the khandhas as stranger (parato) or murderer (vadakato).]
The 5-khandhas are sakkāya. Really exist. Take the sakkāya and viewing them as friends become sakkāya diṭṭhi and fall into painful rebirths. If you know sakkāya as enemies will become a sotāpanna. Therefore, with the sakkāya can fall into unpleasant rebirths or realize Nibbāna. (Sayadaw using each khandha to show that the 5-khandhas are murderer; e-g people die with over heat, tejo rūpa kill people.) In practice for becoming a sotāpanna and higher knowledges, the 5-khandhas only show impermanence. But the ways of contemplation are not the same. For sotāpanna contemplates as this is not mine, not I am and not-myself. For higher knowledges contemplate as murderers.

T7 There are only 2 dhammas; wrong view and right view. With wrong view go to unpleasant destinations, and right view realize Nibbāna. Seeing the khandhas as, this is not mine, not I am, not myself because it’s impermanent nature. So wrong view is falling away. However, if you are practicing hard and not seeing it, then you are 2-rooted person (a person born with non-greed, non-hatred and delusion roots, only has 2-wholesome roots). Then next life will become 3-rooted person. But however need to continue the practices and listening a lot of dhamma talks (here the talks Sayadaw referred to are sacca dhamma), then next life will have the results. If you discern impermanence, tanhā, māna and diṭṭhi will fall away. The reality and knowing are becoming the same (i-e seeing the reality of nature). You have the 5-path factors (right sati-viriya-samādhi…right view-thought). After seeing impermanence contemplate as this is not mine, not I am, not myself. This is the contemplation for sotāpanna. For the higher levels, after discerning anicca contemplate as murderer. After their dukkha were ended, arahants wanted to put down their burdened khandhas. This is the opposite of common people.

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Nalorakk
文章: 232
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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 2-8

文章 Nalorakk » 2018-12-14, 16:28

[08] The Functional Knowledge Of Change
1st July 1961

[In this talk , Sayadaw talked about the functional knowledge of change (viparinamato), one of the meaning of Dukkha. There are 16 meanings of the Four Noble Truths. Each truth has 4-meanings. Sayadaw gave 19-talks on these subjects in Mandalay City from 6th to 25th December 1957. Especially the meanings on dukkha are very good for contemplation. In some of the suttas, the Buddha even mentioned that he only taught dukkha and the ending of dukkha. Only by penetrating dukkha thoroughly we can let go of craving and attachment. One of the meanings of dukkha is saṅkhāra dukkha (saṅkhātato). We can see this one in everyday life all the time and quite an extensive one, cover up everything. By contemplation on this one point very often have the very strong dispassion and disinterest in worldly matters.

In Savutthi the Buddha gave a talk on hell and one monk asked him was there anything more frightening than the Parihala Hell. Not knowing the truth or not cutting off one’s own dependent arising process was more frightening than the hell. Because diṭṭhi was the seed of hell. Sayadaw said most Buddhists have the wrong idea that hells are already existed there for us. Actually our wrong views, defilements and actions create these things for us. Another important point he said was we can observe anicca from consciousness to kamma bhava will no kammic result. If we can’t discern anicca, the process will continue.]

After arriving to hell, the hell fire is so strong that it blinding the eyes. The crying of the hell beings is deafening the ears. The smell of the hell is so horrible that the nose can be fallen off. The food and drink of hell are burning the mouth, tongue, small and large intestines. And the hot iron-liquid are fallen out from the bottom. The clothing of the hell is burning the bodies. Even thinking about them are burning you. Nothing is good there. (Mahā Parihala Niraya= The Great Burning Hell). There are still have chances to be freed from this hell. But not knowing the truth is more frightening than the hell. Because of not knowing- the ignorance(avijjā) is establishing all these hells. It’s not happening by itself. These are done by people not knowing the truth. The things in the hell and fallen into it are creating by one’s own unwholesome kammas. It’s easy to go there and easy to free from it. Whatever arising must know as the truth of dukkha. You have to be afraid of not knowing and how to cut off the paticcasamupāda process. Don’t be afraid of the hells. By knowing the truth, the hells are closed off. Kammas open the doors of the hell and knowledge(Nyan) closing them off. Don’t take the idea of that it’s already there. One’s own kamma is making preparation there. (This point had evidence in the Sutta of Nandiya Upasaka’s story of heavenly mansions. These were already there even before he died.) One’s own dukkha is one’s own paticcasamupāda process which creating it. By kamma itself can’t do anything. Making arrangement by defilements and constructing by actions. Don’t be afraid of kamma but kilesas. As an example, it’s like the arrow (kamma) and the shooter(tanhā). You have to be afraid of the shooter not the arrow. The Buddha did not mention about not thinking, if you want, just thinking about the Four Noble Truths for Nibbāna. From thoughts on sensual pleasure (kama vitakka), ill-will (vyāpāda vitakka) and harmfulness (vihimsa vitakka) come tanhā, māna & diṭṭhi. Today I’ll talk about the truth of dukkha on change (viparinamato). Change is dukkha sacca and without change is nirodha sacca. Arising & passing away is viparinama. If you can discern viparinama then it’s the functional knowledge (kicca nyan). Arising & passing away is the function of the mind/body process(kicca), and the knowing is nyan. The changing nature is not causeless. It comes from ageing & death (jara & marana) carrying along with it.

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Nalorakk
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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 2-9

文章 Nalorakk » 2018-12-14, 16:29

[09] Annihilation & Yamaka
14th to 15th July 1961

T1 [These 2 talks were based on Yamaka again. But there were some differences in it, time and content. Here Sayadaw talked about Nibbāna as the arahant still alive and experience Nibbāna, i-e Nirodho and Magga. After passing away only nirodho without magga. But no dukkha only with sukha and peace exist. Interpret Nibbāna as nothingless, it becomes annihilation. Even some later Buddists interpreted it as permanent identity. Because they have forgotten what the Buddha had said, i-e sabbe dhamma anatta- All dhamma is not-self. All dhamma means everything, including Nibbāna.

In this talk Sayadaw gave example and simile to express the nature of Nibbāna is remarkable and interesting. Also in a very practical sense. He said every living being is burning with 2 kinds of fire; fire of defilements and body fire. If we contemplate these 2 fires in our daily life will understand dukkha very clear. For an arahant, he has no fire of defilements but still has the fire of the body. In his whole process of practice, he realized the first to the last Nibbāna step by step. Here again some scholars and Buddhists misinterpret the Suttas as some yogis had realizations without step by step. These are coming from not understanding the nature of the mind and the law of nature. He knows sukha and peacefulness of Nibbāna with direct experience. With comparison he understands the burden of the body very clear. It’s like the 2 stories building burning with fire. The ground building of the fire is extinguished but the upper story is still burning. In this situation what will you do. Surely you will continue to extinguish the upper fire until all are gone and totally peaceful. In this example the ground fire is defilements and the upper fire is the body.

For an ordinary person, he may think that arahant is already without defilements and his mind is peaceful , why should he passed away and continue to live forever. Sāriputta once said that after became an arahant, he was expecting for parinibbāna (passing away), because carrying the body around was too heavy and burdensome. Even he preferred to carry Mount Meru on his back than the body. Someone who is severely sick wanting to get well. In the same way anyone who really understands dukkha wants to free from it. A yogi practices and penetrates dukkha really wanting to transcend it.]

No sun and moon in Nibbāna, therefore will not suffer wind and rain. Only peace exists and without other things. No connection with any kind of dukkha is Nibbāna. No sun and moon, the natural dukkha, and mind dukkha are not there. Fuel (khandhas) and fire (kilesas) are gone out is Nibbāna. It’s without dukkha and samudaya (5-khandhas and kilesas). Only nirodha and magga exist (Nibbāna and Path Knowledge). Dukkha ceases and sukha must appear. When you have a sore dukkha arises, and after cured sukha exists. It’s important to cure the sores of defilement and khandha. If they are cured, it will appear. Only by appreciation of knowledge (nyan) and Nibbāna that the view of annihilation does not arise. Before the practice to know about them is the duty of the yogi. (Here, Sayadaw was quite different from other teachers. He emphasized very strongly to dispel wrong views with intellectual knowledge and understanding of suññatā dhamma and paticcasamupāda before the practice. It has 2 main reasons behind this point. The first realization is abandoning diṭṭhi. There were evidences in the Buddha’s time and present day yogis who were practicing with wrong views had difficulties and problems during their practices.) After the arahant dies the impermanent khandha dukkha ceases and only sukha exists. Don’t know one’s own dukkha yet, so you don’t know Nibbāna. The khandha is always burning with fire. Only the yogi knows it. Therefore, he wants to free from the fuel and fire. The arahant doesn’t have kilesa fire (already gone out) but the fire of the body still exists. He had seen Nibbāna only. It would be better if the khandha fire also gone out.

(Sayadaw gave the simile of 2 stories building is on fire.) After becoming an arahant all kilesa fire are gone. Therefore, living with a very long life and helping living beings is better. This is the thinking of an ordinary person mind state (a worldling), not an arahant mind. (In India after the Buddha passed away and sometimes later some Buddhists developed new ideas and thinking into his teachings.) Here are the differences between the arahant and an ordinary folk (i-e puthujjana=worldling). This kind of thinking and talking are the mind of a worldling. Therefore, arahants were wanting to put down their burdened khandhas, because they had already seen the peacefulness of Nibbāna and the burning khandhas. (They had seen Nibbāna already for 4 times in their step by step practice. Also by entering into fruition states every day.) It’s the same as someone has an ulcer is wanting to be cured. (It reminds me about Chao Khoon Nor, a well known practicing monk in Thailand. He lived in a dwelling place which was closed all the time and practiced there for 45 years. Only came out for the morning and evening pujas. Later in his life developed throat cancer. I had seen a book documented his illness with colour photos which were frightening. It seems he could bear the physical pain.) But it’s also not good for them to suicide. Most Buddhists are originally, have permanent view (sasata-diṭṭhi). But not understanding Nibbāna and have annihilation view. Ask to contemplate impermanence is let you know about the sores. If you don’t discern impermanence yet can’t talk about Nibbāna. You discern anicca and knowing the unhealthiness. If you know the unhealthiness can know the healthiness by justification. Don’t know the truth of dukkha throughly (penetratingly) never realize the cessation of it (nirodha sacca). To realize Nibbāna, first to discern dukkha. If you don’t appreciate Nibbāna surely you have the view of annihilation (uccheda diṭṭhi). Arahant is seeing 2 sights. Wanting to put down the burden because he had seen the real happiness. It’s not a foolishness.

T2 Only discerning dukkha you are on the right track. Don’t discern it you can’t appreciate sukha, and also never realize Nibbāna. (Sayadaw recounted the story of Yamaka.) Without a teacher to explain these things, people will think that there is nothing in Nibbāna. No appreciation of Nibbāna, and people have uccheda diṭṭhi (view of annihilation). Yamaka contemplated anicca and anatta but couldn’t succeed because couldn’t let go of his view. The body has fire element therefore it becomes ageing. (He recited the Pali gatha by Sāriputta after his arahantship.) After the realization he wanted to lay down his body. He had seen the burning of the khandha and the cessation of it, that wanted to be free. This is also an evidence of the existence of Nibbāna. For the worldlings even they are burning with fire, still looking for more fire to burn them. They are having family lives and praying for the becoming (Having bhava tanhā). Buddhists who don’t want Nibbāna and have faith in Buddhism but they have uccheda diṭṭhi (This point is important to some Buddhists for reflection. They can have both wrong views; i-e they have bhava tanhā – permanent view and frightening of annihilation.)

Yogis can know Nibbāna by justification. By discerning anicca, then he knows that there is a place without anicca. Impermanence is truth of dukkha, then there is truth of sukha without the anicca. Wanting to reach Nibbāna have to come out from the province of impermanence. First have to discern anicca. This will know dukkha. With knowing dukkha, the knowledge of not wanting will arise. Then the dukkha sacca of impermanence will come to an end. This ending is Nibbāna. Therefore, from sotāpanna to arahant had seen the ending of impermanent dukkha for 4 times. He had seen the freedom of dukkha and couldn’t take pleasure in living with the khandhas. There are 2 ways for reaching Nibbāna. By seeing directly and later reaching there. (i-e, with practice and after die.) Therefore, an arahant after the realization prefer to die. Sāriputta himself was liked this. When Sāriputta went to see the Buddha and asking permission to lay down his khandhas, and the Buddha kept quiet. There were some reasons about this. By giving permission means killing, and without permission means still had kilesa. Therefore, the Buddha told him that he had to know it by himself. If you have discerned impermanence you are on the middle way.

The Buddha said that Nibbāna; the unborn(ajatam) and unmade (abhutam) was exist. In each of the Buddha’s Dispensation 80 billions and 100,000 living beings were in Nibbāna.

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