Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 1


文章: 448
註冊時間: 2004-09-17, 08:00

Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 1-1

文章 suibiliau » 2016-07-22, 08:42

[1] By Listening Emptiness Dhamma; Realize Emptiness Nibbāna
( 11th September 1961)

It's beneficial to listen emptiness (suññatā) dhamma. With emptiness realize emptiness Nibbāna. This is important. The Buddha taught Mogharaja, if you could see emptiness you would realize Nibbāna. One time Ananda requested the Buddha to explain the emptiness of the world (suññatā loka). Contemplate a dhamma as empty of I & mine. What are the things to contemplate? Contemplate the eye, form as not I & not mine. Contact of eye and form, eye-consciousness arise. This also is not I & not mine. Eye-consciousness and feeling arise by contact (phassa). All three of them also are not I & not mine. If you can contemplate in this way and will be free from the kingdom of death. Today I'll talk about this short and effective dhamma. Why should I teach emptiness? Because it will disappear with Nibbāna. Even now in this Buddha's Teaching, it's nearly disappear. Talking about mind-body (nāma-rūpa), people don't understand, because there's no person or living being. If talk about the 5-aggregates (khandha) are arising and passing away, only few people want to pay attention. khandha, āyatana (base ~ 6 internal bases & 6-external bases; 6-sense doors & 6-sense objects), element (dhātu) & truth (sacca) are empty phenomena (suññatā dhamma). In the future no one will teach about it. Even find fault with someone who talks about it. In the aggregates there are not I & not mine means it's empty of a person or a living being. The arising and passing away of aggregates are empty of I & mine.

(Here Sayadaw used feeling to teach emptiness) I am in pain is wrong view (ditthi means view, but without adding right or wrong in front of it always means for wrong view). And then follow by clinging to view (ditthupādāna) and action (kamma). (See the 12-links of Dependent Co-arising). Because feeling becomes I feel. The 3-causes for the “future becoming” come into the process (i.e ditthi, ditthupādāna & kamma). (Because we can't view it as emptiness. Without emptiness Dependent Arising process is continuous and becoming the round of existence (Samsāra). If this dhamma disappear, and the teaching will disappear. Without penetration of emptiness, I & mine will follow everyone all the time (I is wrong view & mine is craving). It happens because we can't see emptiness and leads to bad destination (duggati). Someone will say “not I” is a difficult thing. In reality, not I lead to Nibbāna. To Nibbāna you don't need to choose a place for practice (It can practice anywhere, not the same as samatha practice). I'll show the practice. By seeing the feeling is arising, the I concept fall away. By watching and observing of the feeling arising; its life span is only one and two. One is arising and two is passing away. By seeing of passing away, the mine does not exist anymore. By seeing impermanence, both I & mine fall away. In the 31-realms of existence only impermanence exists. Other things are only given names. Feeling only has the job of to feel and not my business.

Insight meditation is the work of watching and observing. Feeling arises and disappears. It disappears because it's not mine and then craving has fallen away. Then it knows the emptiness of feeling. Contemplative knowledge (nyan) becomes the knowledge of emptiness. Craving is the cause of dukkha and the aggregates. The truth of dukkha is gone, the arising of the Path Knowledge and the ending of dukkha. Therefore the Buddha said that by arriving to emptiness so as not to be seen by Death means Nibbāna. Here the important point to note is knowing a dhamma is arising and wrong view fall off, and the passing away craving fall apart. Not realize the first Nibbāna is not understanding of emptiness. Not from book knowledge but by directly. For example, a pleasant feeling arises in the body. By knowing directly of its arising, then the I-ness fall away. It's not me, just only feeling, and it becomes empty of me. It's not mine that it passes away. Therefore seeing impermanence is without the I-ness & mine-ness. This is the knowledge of emptiness. Contemplate more and more it becomes the Path (magga). The arising is dukkha and the passing away is dukkha. By fully understanding (pariññeya) of this and then from the insight knowledge to become Path knowledge, all these arising & passing away come to an end. Dukkha nirodho Nibbānam~ the ending of dukkha is Nibbāna. Tanha nirodho Nibbānam~ the ending of craving is Nibbāna. The Path knowledge understands dukkha and sees Nibbāna. (By the truth of the path, the other truths are fulfilled. The Commentary gave the simile of a boat carrying people and crossing the river from this shore to the other shore. This side is the truth of dukkha, the river is the cause of dukkha and the other side is the end of dukkha. The boat is the truth of the path which done the other jobs. ) Impermanence is the dhamma of not I & not mine. Therefore by contemplating impermanence, wrong view and craving fall away. Emptiness mainly destroyed wrong view, but also including craving. By seeing the arising of phenomena overcomes the identity view (sakkāya ditthi) & annihilationism (uccheda ditthi) and seeing passing away overcomes eternalism (sasata ditthi).

文章: 400
註冊時間: 2004-09-19, 08:00

Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 1-2

文章 Avuso » 2016-07-23, 09:49

[2]Wrong View and Emptiness
( 22nd October 1961)

Dhamma has general meaning. Actually it's truth (sacca) or function rightly. When greed and anger happen, mind-body has to follow them. Mind with greed creates greedy form (loba rupa) ,etc. On the highest level of vipassanā meditation, bones become hook joints. It happens by its own dhamma. Mind and mental states can make the physical body without decomposition. The Buddha's bones became chain-joints. Wholesome, unwholesome and kammically indeterminate dhamma (abyākatā) create their own physical forms respectively. Therefore this physical body has to follow the nature of the dhamma. Unwholesome dhammas create unwholesome bodies in woeful planes etc. The body is an assemblage of dhamma. Turn the mind into the body will see wholesome & unwholesome dhammas arise without a person or a being, only the dhamma assemblage of wholesome mental state and its form. This is dispelling wrong view to woeful planes. If we don't observe, it becomes a problem. By seeing in this way we become the disciples of the Buddha. Today I'll give the emptiness teaching of no personality and being. Without this knowledge wrong view will not fall away. A person, a being is only in speech but without an essence. With this firm decision and at the same time, the taints of wrong view (ditthāsava) are ceased. By knowing it as the dhamma assemblage taint of ignorance (avijjāsava) also ceased. Analyzing the dhamma carefully will find out that it's conditioned & impermanent. Seeing only the replacement and passing away. For example , eating is replacement and defecating is passing away. Therefore in this body only renewing and changing exist. It's only conditioned phenomena and impermanence.

Anicca vata saṅkhāra~ conditioned phenomena are truly impermanent; this is the job of the aggregates. The whole day this is their duty. Continuously replacing is conditioned dukkha. Impermanent dhamma destroy it. Every time the deer gave birth, eaten by the tiger. (A Burmese Proverb) It happens in this way, don't you become disinterest or not? You all turn your mind to business only, not to the aggregates. If you turn the mind to the aggregates, you'll want to end the conditioned phenomena and impermanence. The noble beings see this and take interest in it. Therefore the Buddha said that no renewing and changing is Nibbāna, the greatest Happiness. People think about Nibbāna in many ways, but none of them is true. By direct experience Nibbāna is no replacement and change. I want you all to see this, but don't think you can see only this much. Why? By seeing this process more & more, it becomes disgusting and displeasure and not wanting anymore. These renewing & changing process become quicker & quicker, later only seeing the passing away. Take this as your knowledge is rising up (bhānga&ānam), at first seeing a lot of the arising and the passing away, by continuous effort when the mind becomes more sharper , and can't see the arising but only passing away.

After sometime without seeing any of the arising and passing away, then the khandha is free. Can't find the khandha. The observing mind see or experience freedom of the khandha. I am talking about these for the yogis. Seeing the dissolution of the formations (khandhas) more & more develop the knowledge of fear (bhaya nyan), and then the knowledge of danger (ādīnava nyan). From the beginning of his full enlightenment, Sariputta wanted to leave his body behind. There was no pleasure and freedom at all by carrying around this burdened khandha. Therefore he wanted to put down this heavy load and entered Nibbāna. You all are not like this. Wanting to go here and there by carrying the heavy durden around. Can't see the fault of it, but very happy to be a coolie man. Isn't quite different? It's like carrying a burning load. Tanha wants a big load. If you have many children, it's like carrying more rice bags, similar to a coolie. So the coolies at the ports don't like others do the jobs (competition for getting money). Even some lay people wanting to carry the khandha of heavy burden that they are making prayers in front of the Buddha's images (as long life, beauty, fortune, good rebirths etc). It's like carrying a heavy burden of load on the very rugged road. Sariputta even mentioned that at the time the world comes to an end, he would be free from carrying Mount Meru on his back (if he had one), but never from the life of a khandha bearer (even the world ended). Nibbāna is the ending of saṅkhārā & anicca (arising & changing). Tesam vupasamo sukho~ the ending of them is happiness. Saṅkhārā & anicca are our contemplation. It means the arising and passing away of your khandha. In the end, not seeing any of them is arriving at the first stage of Nibbāna. As mentioned in the First Sermon (Discourse), i.e seeing Dhamma. Anyone not seeing impermanence is still blind and crazy. Seeing a lot of them and becoming a normal person.

The Buddha said that in ending one's own dukkha, it's quicker & better. There are 4-piles of excrement in the room if you want to clear up later, it becomes smelly. During realization of Nibbāna kammic resultant body still exist, but in the mind of the yogi does not see it. People around see the body, but the yogi himself is not. Because the defilement sends one to the lower planes is eradicated. When the Buddha in fruition state couldn't see his own body. Yogis own experience and other around him are different. If someone still has defilement, others can't bear his smell. Before the first council, Maha Kassapa made a remark on Ananda, " We have a smelly goat among us." (At that time Ananda was still a stream enterer, Sotāpannā.). It does not bother you, but to the Ariyas (nobble beings). Saṅkhārā and anicca are the same as arising and passing away."Anicca vata saṅkhārā, Uppada-vaya-dhammino; Uppajjitava nirujjhanti, Tesam vupasamo sukkho"~ "Formations are truely impermanent, their nature is arising and passing away; after arise has to cease, their ending is happiness.")

If Nibbāna has no khandhas, it can be mistaken as nothingness. Don't take it as nothingness. For example, you have an ulcer and unbearably painful. You have the desire to be cured, and everybody has to be. Your body is the place of diseases (rogato), ulcer etc., all of them are there. With the noble one's eye can see them. When it was cured, the yogi has any satisfaction or not? So he is in the state of no disease. Therefore Nibbāna is exist. Only people have ulcer wanting to be cured. No disease (roga) is Nibbāna. Knowing that there is no disease is Path Knowledge (Magga Nyan), and then Fruition Knowledge (Phala Nyan). Nibbāna exists that Path & Fruition Knowledge can be arisen. So Nibbāna exists (atthi).

"There is monks, an unborn, unbecome, unmade, unfabricated. If there were not that unborn, unbecome, unmade, unfabricated, these would not be the case that emancipation from the born, become, made, fabricated would be discerned. But precisely because there is an unborn, unbecome, unmade, unfabricated, emancipation from the born, become, made, fabricated is discerned."(Sayadaw quoted these Pali verses from the Buddha in the Udāna).
最後由 Avuso 於 2016-08-13, 21:39 編輯,總共編輯了 2 次。

文章: 400
註冊時間: 2004-09-19, 08:00

Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 1-3

文章 Avuso » 2016-07-23, 10:19

[3] Questions and Answers by Visākha and Dhammadinna
(Talk one to six, 11th to 17th December 1961)

( I condense the story of Visākha and Dhammadinna told by Sayadaw. It was based on Cula-Vedalla Sutta, Sutta No.44 of Majjhima Nikāya.)

T1. (King Bimbisara invited the Buddha to his place and he gave talks there. Visākha , the merchant of Rajagaha listened these talks 3 times separately. And each time he realized the Dhamma and the last time become a non-returner (anagamin). Later his wife Dhammadinna, asked permission for entering the bhikkuni sangha. She went to a quiet place for 7 days and practiced and became an arahant. After she came back from the retreat, Visākha went to see her and asked questions on dhamma.)
You'll have the chance to hear the questions and answers between Visākha and Dhammadinna from about identity-view (sakkāya ditthi) to Nibbāna. (Then Sayadaw told the story of them above.) Therefore the Path Knowledge (magga nyan) surely has the power of energy to destroy defilement (kilesas). What is sakkāya? It's the 5-aggregates (khandhas). The real existence of mind-body is sakkāya. People here (the audience) understand sakkāya ditthi as a combination. It's the natural qualities of the aggregates (paramatha dhamma of the 5 khandhas) and are really existed, and you can call it sakkāya. (It's important to understand that the Buddha's Teaching is for practical purpose to end dukkha. Not for the philosophical thought games like later tradition.)

Some people say that you have a lot of sakkāya. This way of using it is wrong. Sakkāya is not a fault. It means mind-body, only wrong view is wrong. Form(rupa) is sakkāya. If you take it as “ I or me”, become wrong view. People don't know that form is truth of dukkha and think it as I or me . Then it can lead to the woeful planes. I am cold, I am hot etc. In this way I is interfering with sakkāya. Knowning form as form, even it becomes knowledge. " I have a good meal", this is “the I” interfere with feeling. So, viewing sakkāya in the wrong way becomes wrong view. " I perceive it", interfere with perception. " Don't misunderstand my intention", interfere with volition. At here, one has to remember that “I in speech” is not a fault only take it as the real me. People already clear about this point and by using only in speech is not in fault with it. It's a relative truth and we need to use it for communication. The Buddha himself used it. People have wrong view not in this way, and they think it as real. If nobody explain for it , these thoughts are over run through in countless times. For the one who knows this point, they know that their speech and the reality are different things. " Don't test my mind", it becomes wrong view in consciousness. If someone comes in and tests him what will happen. Then they become a quarrel. The cause of wrong view is sure enough in this case. Regarding with wrong views, people are quarreling and fighting among them. If interfering with wrong view in anyone of the aggregates can become annihilationism (uccheda ditthi). As example," If I die, I also die". "When my mind comes to an end, I also end". These are the ideas of totally cut off. " I'll die with this Vedanā". This include both identify-view & annihilationism.

If you have wrong view and clinging to view will follow. Still alive we have view of permanence and near dying view of annihilation. When business are going well sasata ditthi, and during illness ucchedha ditthi, not knowing about these things is living a bad long life. Wrong view is the seed of hell. Why? With it follows by clinging to view. I will never give up my view (become clinging) and do what I think (become action). Is it action (kamma) or wrong view (ditthi) leading one to the woeful planes for rebirth? You may think beings fall into these planes are because of unwholesome actions. It is not so. Wrong views making the programming and action has to follow it. (The same as craving-tanha, the Buddha mentioned wrong view as great tanha and greed-loba as small tanha). "I can't overcome this vedanā", this is the I-ness go and mixed-up with vedanā. Vedanā is arising and passing away by itself. Have to observe it like a stranger. Painful feelings come & go. Good feeling also come & go. Neutral feeling is also in the same way. The observing mind also the same. This is dispelling wrong view. Feeling arising in the body and the observing mind is happening inside. So, don't mixed-up. If you don't mixed-up these things, then wrong view can't come in. Take it as a stranger. Then you know it as not-self.

The knowledge of not-self come into being. You must observe in the khandha , it appears as a guest and die as a guest. It's equal to Prato (stranger) (There were 10 contemplations in the suttas mentioned by the Buddha and Sariputta. How to contemplate in 10 different ways on khandha? Prato was one of them). I teach you the contemplation of not-self. The Buddha also had dukkha Vedanā in the body but no mental feeling in the mind. This was different from the common beings. Only had bodily pain and no mental pain. Why is that? That is because he had the ability to observe or see as a guest. All the 5-khandhas and whatever arising are guests. (Liked guests come and go). Take it as the host , you will suffer. As an example, "If my son dies, it will hurt me". In reality it's nothing to do with you, he is only a guest. He came to you, not you wanted him. If you want him to leave, he will not. If you are in tears, you already mixed up the guest with “the I". Most women are in tears, because they making the quests as hosts. In the words, "my daughter", “the mother's I” and “the daughter's I” are intermingling. The daughter's mind-body is nothing to do with the mother's mind-body. We are in tears not because of misfortune, the cause of intermingling. The mother's wrong view and the daughter's identity (sakkāya) become mix-up. When it shows its not-self nature and it hurts me. The mother's string of wrong view goes and connects with the daughter's aggregates, and then clinging to view to arise (ditthupādāna). There will be no tears to fall without mixed-up wrong view with sakkāya. "Whatever changing in the world, my mind is not moving", this is someone does not has wrong view. Ariyas' mind is not moving when they encounter with the eight worldly winds. No connection with the string of wrong view. Someone here will be in stressful when something happen to one's own child in England. This is 6000 miles away. Too long is the string of wrong view. You are in tears because someone had tortured you or you went to mix thing up. Bind two oxen together with a rope. If one of them is falling into the cliff and the other is also. Without wrong view whatever happen to the mother, the daughter is all right. In the same way to the daughter, the mother is all right. In this way not painful rebirths come to be and in this life also no suffering. Don't mixed-up one's own khandhas with one's wrong view. The Buddha said that there is no fault greater than wrong view. It can lead to commit the 5 heavy kammas. Killing one's own father is ditthi; there is nothing it can't do. In the unwholesome dhammas, wrong view is the most fearful one.

If I die, vedanā also die, when the fire go out, the light also die out. So take the fire and light together. Fire and light are different things. Fire is heat and light is brighten. Different types of feeling arise in turn, that mean reveal it unstableness. So try to see the arising & passing away. In this way, no "I-ness" mixed up with the process. There is no I in the arising and in the passing away also no I-ness. Take all these as stranger. Living beings fall into painful rebirths are not by feeling but wrong view. Vedanā conditioned Ditthi.

T2 Cula-Vedalla Sutta is the answers to the questions of Dhamma. (Here Sayadaw told the story in brief) After became an anagamin (Visākha), his faculties were calm and serene. His Dhamma attainment was not suitable to this sensual world. By contemplating impermanence, the defilement become thinner. Arriving at the knowledge of disenchantment, it becomes thinner. At the end it's eradicated. Practice is never wasting. Only this medicine can free someone from the danger of old age, sickness and death. This is the only refuge can rely on. If you have samudaya (tanha-craving) dukkha will follow. Even knowledge of impermanence (vipassanā nyan) is quite effective.

(1) What is sakkāya? Only asked sakkāya not including wrong view yet. It's the clinging of the 5-khandhas. What are the 5-khandhas? Form aggregates, feeling aggregates, perception aggregates, fabrication aggregates and the consciousness aggregates. She answered as the present 5-khandhas. Still he did not believe it, because can be answered by book knowledge. It's important for you all to understand that. This present 5- khandhas is sakkāya.

(2) What is the cause of sakkāya (khandhas)? It comes from craving (tanha), craving for sensual pleasure (kama tanha), craving for becoming (bhava tanha) and craving for non-becoming (vibhava tanha).The cause of mind-body is come from craving. Khandhas arise from tanha, updāna and kamma. The main source is craving. Until craving is not dying out will have sakkāya khandha and with old age, sickness and death follow behind. It comes from the craving for attachment to life. Surrounded by many kinds of dukkha. Because of the fish smell flies are coming. In the same way because of sakkāya (the 5-khandhas) dangers are coming. By wind blow suffer from the danger of wind. Because of heat suffer from the danger of heat. The cause from wicked dhamma only brings wicked things. Only these are arising. If you can see the impermanence of sakkāya, you will transcend its empire. Sakkāya is the truth of dukkha. Seeing dukkha sacca and tanha samudaya must thinning out. After thinning out tanha, dukkha become less and less. Someone with affection will encounter dukkha and hurt himself, with more affection more harmfulness. When sakkāya changes and samudaya also changes; then sorrow, grief and lamentation come in.

(3) Tell me the ending of sakkāya. If craving ends, it will end also. In short , samudaya end and dukkha end also. Tanha nirodho Nibbānam appear~ the ceasing of craving is Nibbāna. The Buddha could enter into the Nibbanic state during the Dhamma talk, within the period of in-breath and out-breath. He also started from impermanence (arising and passing away) and instantly turned towards Nibbāna.

(4) Tell me the practice to the ending of sakkāya. It's the noble Eight Fold Path. If not entered the Path yet has to contemplate with the 5 factors (i.e. sammā -sati,
sammā-vāyāma, sammā-samādhi, sammā-ditthi, sammā-saṅkappa).

After the Path, practice with 8 factors (from sakādagamin to arahantship). Why these factors called magganga? That is because it cuts off defilement temporary. If it can cut off defilement, and then the dhamma become to Nibbāna. Just contemplate impermanence and doing nothing, and then you are temporary in Nibbāna. Dāna,
sīla and samatha are supportive factors for the magganga. They are decisive support condition (upanisaya paccayo) and magganga is path condition (magga paccayo). (i.e the far and near causes) The Noble Eight Fold Path is sīla, samādhi and pa&&a. Pa&&a is the leading factor.

(5) Tell me the clinging aggregate (upādānakkhandhā). The 5-khandhas are the object of clinging.

(6) Clinging and khandhas are the same or different? It's not the same nor different. How to understand it? For your clear understanding I have to come in. Khandhas exist by itself, as examples the khandhas of son and wife. If it's only sakkāya, and then it only become the sense objects. Not the sense objects of clinging. The clinging from here go to connect the other side khandhas and then become the clinging khandhas. The other side is 5-khandhas and this side is craving, and these two connect together become clinging khandhas. Without connection it is not. It's only contact with the sense object and the sense organ (arom & arammanika). The khandhas and tanha are not the same. People have craving become clinging khandhas. We can't bear even mosquito bite. Therefore it's connected. It's unbearable when it hurt our beloved khandhas. khandhas are the place of clinging. Some people mix-up with it, some are not. Noble persons (ariyas) are not in it. When we are happy we connect it, if not happy also. They are connected as cause & effect relationship. They are different nature that not the same (khandha & tanha). For someone who connects these nor different. (means the same)

(7) Tell me sakkāya ditthi. No intellectual knowledge and not listening to ariya's dhamma and then take the khandhas as me. With knowledge only sakkāya and not become wrong view. The khandha is sakkāya and wrong view is interfering with it, without listening dhamma difficult to dispel wrong view. Therefore the causes for becoming a Sotāpanna; are:
1. Association with the wise
2. Listening the dhamma
3. Wise reflection on it (yonisomanasikarā)
4. Practise according to the dhamma (dhammānu dhammapatipatti)
Where is intellectual knowledge come from? From listening the dhamma, fulfilling these 4 factors will realize the Dhamma. Every day in talk I had mentioned sakkāya ditthi as the seed of hell. It's more dangerous than greed, anger, delusion, envy and avarice. If sakkāya ditthi is eradicated; 1/4 of greed, anger and delusion is destroyed, including envy, avarice and whatever combined with it. If you don't want to fall into painful rebirths have to destroy it first. Even you don't fear other kilesas must fear this one. Dāna,
sīla, samatha can lead someone to good rebirths, but later pull one downwards to painful rebirths by wrong views. If you are not destroyed it only temporary rising upwards.

Nothing is more fearful than wrong view, because of this someone can kill one's own mother and father. The 5-heavy kammas come from it. In sotāpan these kammas are never happened. People said they fear unwholesome dhammas. Don't be fear! If you destroy wrong view, no need to fear any unwholesome dhammas. It's leading other unwholesome dhammas and sending beings to the 8-great hells and 120-small hells. If you see sakkāya it dispels wrong view. Why? It becomes right view and the wrong view has to go away. Wrong view must exterminate by right view. Any illness has to be cured by it's own medicine. Dāna, sīla and samatha can't overcome it. It's better to do wholesome kammas after dispel wrong view, if not will fall downwards again. The Buddha preferred the kinds of dāna, sīla and samatha enrich with vipassanā. There are 8-kinds of dāna and the best one is enriched with vipassanā. (Mentioned in the Anguttara) Sakkāya ditthi arises because of not knowing the reality. Therefore knowing the differences clearly and then do the merits. As an example, you shoot a bird with a poison arrow and hit the skin only. It continues to fly as long as the poison not spread enough to the whole body, and then spread enough it will fall down. In the same way any merits done with wrong view going upward temporary and later pull downward by wrong view.

T3 (8)Why sakkāya ditthi arises? At the time of the Buddha there were noble beings. People had identity-view because they didn't approach them and listened to their talks. Now a day people have this view because they don't have chance for hearing the Dhamma. Not hearing the Dhamma will never dispel this view. Nothing is more important than sakkāya ditthi. When the 5-khandhas arise and don't know become sakkāya ditthi. As example, there is stiffness in the body. Take the air, wind element as I am in stiffness. Someone who knows it's just the alteration of wind element. Don't mixed-up with the I-ness. Wind element is just only wind element. Heat and cold also become, “I am in cold”,”I am in hot”. It's just heat elements. Someone has diarrhea, “I don't know what happen to me.” Take water element as me. Take the 4-great elements as me. “My body is itchy.” Not knowing the aggregates of feeling arising and passing away become identity-view. “I forget”, making the I-ness to the lost memory. “I want to sleep”, making the I-ness to sloth and torpor, the aggregate of formation (sankhārakkhandha). “Don't test my mind”, take consciousness as me. Everytime the phenomena of ultimate reality (paramatha dhamma) are arising become wrong view. How many times a day? Uncountable!

(9) Why there is no sakkāya ditthi? Whatever arising contemplates, as this is not mine, not I am, not me, then dispel sakkāya ditthi. Contemplate the arising of feeling, mind and mental states as impermanent, suffering, not-self. Someone who had dispelled sakkāya ditthi will not fall into the 4-painful rebirths.

(10) What kind of dhamma can destroy sakkāya ditthi? Developing the Noble Eight Fold Path will overcome it. Is there any differences among them? Yes, they have. The differences are sīla, samādhi and pannā. (Explained the 3 sīlas) These are sīla maggnga(path factors). Why there are 3 differences? They can't do the job separately. With the help of mindfulness (sati) and effort (viriya) samādhi develop. The commentary gave this example. How do you take (pluck) a flower, which you can't reach out? One person (1st) has to bend his waist gives his back to another person (2nd). This 2nd person has to climb on his (1st) back. A 3rd person standing beside the 1st person and gives his shoulder for the 2nd person to hold on it. In the same way in vipassanā the 1st person bends his waist and back is liked viriya. The 3rd person standing beside is similar to sati. Samādhi is liked the 2nd person who plucks the flower. Sati and viriya support samādhi. In vipassanā, not putting effort (viriya) and no mindfulness (sati) are impossible. Only then samādhi can go straight towards the object. Wanting to develop samādhi don't let go of mindfulness and don't reduce effort. Only then samādhi can catch hold of impermanence. If you can't discern impermanence, one of them is lacking for the mind going straight away towards the object. These 3-factors are important. Viriya is pushing from behind and sati is helping it to pluck there. It happens only by combining 3 together. If one of them is lacking, you must know the situation. If you can know and correct it, your samādhi will go towards the object of impermanence. Samādhi can't see impermanence, only leading towards it. Can plunge the mind towards where one's need is samādhi. Only wisdom (nyan) is seeing impermanence. It is also not seen by sati, only pointing towards it. Three of them combining together and pointing towards a sense-object. They can't see impermanence. Must know this point. It's important for the yogis. Samādhi only reaches to the flower. Can't choose good or bad. Why is that? It's only pointing to an object. This one is impermanent (anicca) and conditioned phenomena (saṅkhārā). These are not concern with samādhi only helping the wisdom factors.

Tell me wisdom factors. It's Right View and Right Thought. Why these are together? The eyes are in good shape. But to choose a thing for good or bad, there need to be something to turn around the object to be observed. As example, you look at an object and see only this side. Can't see the other side. For seeing the other side, you need to turn over the object. This side is liked this and the other side is liked that. Right Thought providing the view, the view of impermanence.

Wisdom is observing the object. Arising is something and passing away is another thing. Someone has to provide this for the seeing. Seeing only the arising and not the passing, and only the passing and not the arising, and then right thought is poor.
Sammā is right and saṅkappa is thinking (turning around) or providing the view. The example I want to give is: using the power glasses for the poor eye sight. In this way will see like a young boy, will see clearly with the help of the glasses. Without the glasses you can see but not clear. Here the eyes are sammā-ditthi and the glasses are right thought. In this way can see the whole process. If you can't see clear, then helping with right thought. It means vitakka, and it gives strength for the contemplation. Therefore samādhi and pannā factors need helps.

Then why sīla factors have 3-diffenent nature. If one of them exists, other two are not included. Right speech and right action each do its own different jobs. Therefore one can't help the other during it's performance. They have different actions (kamma). Because of their abstaining, they have the same name as sīla but different in jobs. For the yogi who is practicing, sometimes with 5-factors and sometimes with 6-factors. Samādhi and pa&&a can be come in together. But sīla can't come in together, and can't help each other. During vipassanā contemplation they can't include. If one is included the other are not. When are they coming together? It is at the time of inclining towards Nibbāna element. If not never coming together. During meditation keeping the sīla only. Unstable sīla is one of the reasons that cannot come together. Not become right view that sīla is unstable. Right view develops vipassanā. Someone has wrong view can't rely on sīla and easy to break it. Monks who had sīlas but they couldn't dispel wrong view that born as naga (a type of magical snake) and louse (the 1st one was from the Kassapa Buddha's time and the 2nd one was during Gotama Buddha). Freedom from the 4-painful rebirths is by destroying wrong view. It's the seed of hell which I mention to you everyday is become clear.

If you can get rid of sakkāya ditthi, sasata and uccheda ditthis also gone. Both of them originate from this one. Only ditthi die out that you realize the First Path (magga). Ditthi nirodho Nibbānam~Cessation of wrong view is Nibbāna. After it had gone there are no dhammas can prevent or hinder for the higher Paths. The Dhamma will lead onwards. One also wants to continue. After destroyed wrong view no need to teach him for the higher Paths. The Buddha only taught the 4-causes for stream entering (sotāpanna) and not for the higher Paths. After ditthi is gone and doubt also. Therefore basically preventing all the Paths is ditthi. After destroyed ditthi no one continue for more then 7-life times. It's easy to dispel ditthi. Everytime seeing paramattha dhamma (conditioned phemomena), contemplate as this is not mine, not I am and not myself. Contemplate as impermanence nature.

Where is wrong view stuck in? It pierced inside of each 5-khandhas as latent defilement (anusaya kilesa). If you see the impermanence of any khandha and it can't come in. It is an example to the dukkha vedanā that I am in pain for a long time. It happens because you can't see the impermanence or cut through the continuity (santati). You take the khandhas as permanence and it comes in. If you can observe the impermanence in details and it will nearly fall away. Seeing it as now arising and now passing away, ditthi cannot come in. Seeing the impermanence without a gap is very important. If not, ditthi will come in. Therefore I am asking you that do you see impermanence more and more. What do you think why I am asking at you? I am worry that ditthi will come in. If you discern anicca as you can't put the tip of a needle inside the whole body. Then ditthi cannot come in. If you see this way, it becomes weak and becomes right view. By its nature the body is packing into with impermanence and without gaps. In a second, the mind is arising and passing away at the speed of 1013 times. So it's without a gap. Form is at the speed of 5x1011 times. If wrong view has strength impermanence becomes intermittently. If right view has strength impermanence becomes more accelerated. They are combating each other. Don't think what's happening to me today. It was influenced by ditthi. If ditthi is too strong even can't see it. If right view is too strong even in the beginning of sitting can see it. May be you want to ask that only to discern the speed of impermanence in 1013 and 5x1011 times/ sec. can be realized Nibbāna? You can realize Nibbāna without this kind of rate. It's depended on your own power of discernment. Why? These were the view of someone who had finished the path.

They talked about it by their own discernment. It's not for the one who is still in practice. Discernment comes by one's own right view. These were the discernment of arahants. With one's own discernment will realize the path. If you ask can other discern in billion times. Again, the answer is it's the view of completion. How can it be the same, the views of worldlings and the noble ones? Why? We have a lot of defilement come in, therefore a lot of life continuum (bhavanga cittas) between the processes. The Buddha's discernment had only 2-bhavanga cittas between. Sariputta's discernment had only 16-bhavanga cittas between. Our discernment have many bhavanga cittas between for each seeing. Bhavanga cittas are not the problem, because not kilesa-cittas. If kilesa comes in, it will become problem. Therefore in the Anguttara Nikāya, the Buddha said that if kilesa not comes in between, practicing in the morning and realization in the evening. Not mentioned about the bhavanga citta. Bhavanga cittas are normal and the law of dhamma. The numbers of bhavanga cittas are depending on the root of the mind(hetu dhamma).

T4.The Noble Eight Fold Path is the middle way. We had never been on the middle way in the whole round of rebirths (Samsāra). If we had been, would never return. On the path samādhi is important.

(11) What is samādhi? It's called one-pointedness of the mind (ekaggata citta). It can take one object. What is one object? If feeling and only feeling, the mind and only the mind and not together. Pointing towards on an object and it's called the mind is in one-pointedness. Concentrating on an object is ekaggata. If you can concentrate in an object defilement can be overcome.

(12) What is the sign of samādhi? It's the 4-Satipatthanā, contemplation on the body, feeling, mind and dhamma. Samādhi follows sati towards an object. If it's feeling, it will fall on feeling straight away. In this way know about feeling. If one-pointedness is on the mind and sati fall on it. One-pointedness must work with the Satipatthānā objects. The sign of samādhi is the body disappeared and knowing the feeling or mind etc. Contemplation of feeling it just falls on feeling, and mind just on mind. Then it becomes the sign of Satipatthanā. If discern impermanence, it's also the sign (namitta). Sati fall on the object and its permanent sign disappeared and impermanent sign appeared in the mind also the sign of Satipatthanā. By seeing the impermanent sign appeared, the form and shape of man or woman is disappeared. Therefore by seeing the sign of impermanence is the sign of Satipatthanā. Can itself alone leads to realization? Must include the member of Satipatthanā. It's effort (viriya). By putting effort forwards and sati-pannā seeing the sign of impermanence. This seeing is helping by effort. Viriya and samādhi are the factors of samādhi. Sati and pa&&a are the factors of discernment (wisdom). Its qualities we are talking in different ways and in discerning anicca all factors are there. Can it be realized Nibbāna in this way? It needs to be contemplating for many times (bhāvetabba)Why? Kilesa impurities are liked a copper bowl. It can shine only by polishing. From births we had impurities with us liked the copper bowl. By not doing Satipatthānā practice, one-pointedness practice and not putting effort for practice, then the mind becomes more and more dirtier liked the bowl. To do this kind of work, has to meet a teacher and has the kind of ear to listen dhamma. From the day of births we are grown up with craving mother and ignorance father. We are grown up on their hands and care. They are very worry that we realize the Path and Fruit and liberate from their hands. Ignorance cover up the Four Noble Truth and craving teach us for affection to mother, sons and properties. We are doing things what they want us to do.

So everyday impurities pile up. How long it had been? Not polishing it for the whole round of rebirths. Between them we also have body guards of wrong view. Ditthi always control us and tell us this is your dad and this is your mom. Normally we leave it and never wash and polish it that is piles up with impurities. This is the reason we can't realize Nibbāna. The volume of ignorance, craving and ditthi are increasing.
Therefore it needs to contemplate for many times. By polishing again and again the copper bowl which we left for a long time is becoming shining. Must contemplate for many times and put continuous effort. Contemplate continuously decrease ignorance, craving and ditthi. For insight knowledge contemplate again and again is needed and not for Path Knowledge. Nibbāna Path Knowledge sees Nibbāna once only. Even though Path Knowledg arises only once; it's similar to cross a river by a boat. The boat-man puts the loads in a boat and rows it to the other shore. The boat is doing 4-jobs. 1. Leaving this shore 2. Arriving to the other shore 3.Carrying the loads 4.Crossing the water. In the same way, the boat liked the Path is crossing the water of defilement only once. Leaving this shore of sakkāya ditthi and arriving at the other shore of Nibbāna is also the boat or the Path. The boat is also carrying the loads of khandhas. Path Knowledge happen once and finish 4-jobs. From seeing the impermanence of wrong view to without impermanence of Nibbāna, cutting through defilement is the Path and crossing towards Nibbāna, which is without dukkha khandhas is also the Path.

During the practice, one-pointedness is important and also the sign of Satipatthanā. The helping of effort is also important. All these things happen one time is not enough. Need to contemplate many times. The Buddha emphasized this point by giving the simile of the mother hen and the eggs. The hen has 3 duties to do. You also have the 3 duties of working with anicca, dukkha and anatta. Without these duties, all the eggs become spoiled as your knowledge become blunted. With continuous contemplation the shells of ignorance become thinner. Liquid of craving become dry-up. The knowledge of spiked claws (the chicks inside the eggs) becomes shape. You must spread your body of contemplation on the eggs of impermanence. Only kilesa liquid dry-up the shells of ignorance become thinner. The spiked claws become sharp, the chicks can kick the shells from inside and hatch out. Liked the hen, you have to sit on the eggs very often. If not it's impossible. Light appears means realize Nibbāna. Kilesa liquid dry-up and the shells of ignorance thin out will see the light. The spiked claws which similar to knowledge become sharp. The Buddha said that the one who contemplates destroy the taints (āsavas). With kilesa the mind can't penetrate. Even kilesa itself is inconstant. It has the power of repetition condition (āsevana-paccaya). Therefore the mind can't penetrate. When you go back home observe the body, don't see it as a lump of form. Contemplate feeling, the mind, and if you know how to do it, the form is disappear. If you can't, the form of hand, feet, hair..etc, the 32-parts of the body can be appeared. Only the form disappear you are reaching the point.
She talked about the factors of awakening (Dammadinna). Analysis of qualities as a factor of awakening (dhammavijaya sambojjhanga) is the path factors of right view (sammā-ditthi). She used the factors of awakening there. The way to Nibbāna so used it as bodhi (awakening). Bodhi means knowing. In the factors of awakening also include contemplation for many times (bhavita bahulikata). Therefore right view and analysis of qualities are the same things. Right view is also not enough for seeing only but need to contemplate for many times as factors of awakening show it. People may think path factors are no need to contemplate for many times. So, I talk about them here. Both of them are wisdom factors. If you do the path factors again and again including awakening factors. Why talk about two things? Path factors talk about cutting off defilement and awakening factors about increasing the factors. By contemplating again and again and not seeing Nibbāna yet, but don't take it as wasting time. The Buddha gave this simile ~ the handle of a carpenter's adze. Using it for one time the handle was eroded once. If you're continuously using it continuously eroded. It can't come to be by prayers (as later traditions). At first the handle becomes smooth out, and then slowly the fingers' print appear on the handle. The thickness of kilesa developed from the round of rebirths is so thick that without continuous contemplation can it be thin out? Therefore insight meditation has the outcome of reducing kilesa. Don't be disappointed and giving up. If kilesa thin out, the practice is developing. Every time seeing impermanence every time it's thin out. Seeing more and more it becomes thinner and thinner. Contemplation is stopping the process of dependent arising to continue. The first kilesa thin out and the later one extinction. Effort also has to develop. May be you might think it's not including rapture (piti). Already it's inside the samādhi. I am talking about only the leading factor. It's included as association with samādhi. Every good feeling of contemplation includes piti. Not as the leader of the path factors but as follower. Contemplation without piti, laziness will follow. Therefore the Buddha asked to contemplate with joy and interest. Seeing something as never seen before, so contemplate with gladness. I will explain the matter of seeing something never seen before. With the eyes of the Brahma gods can see a needle in the human world. They can see the needle from 4x109 miles far away (may be yojana, 1yojana=10KM). But they can't see the anicca.

They saw it with the worldly eyes (lokiya). Here we see with the supermundane eyes. So your discernment of anicca is better than the views of the Brahma gods. A rock tablet falls from the Brahma world to the earth take one and a half months (1-1/2 months). Theirs are divine eyes. The eyes belong to the time outside the Buddha's teaching. It's samādhi eyes. Here are the knowledge eyes (nyan eyes). Not easy to have this knowledge. Here it's itching and here it's passing away. Feeling appears and disappears. So it's nyan eyes. Dhammavijaya eyes or you can call it the eyes of right view, wisdom eyes. The worldling gods and Brahma gods don't realize Nibbāna, because they are lacking of this eyes. Therefore after they are passing away return to the human world and to the animal realm.

105years before the Doomsday, human beings become fear the day to come. Many developing the Divine-abiding (Brahmavihara Dhamma) and most of them become Brahma gods. All these are by samatha practice and when the time come will fall back again. Even though this eyes can see the small needle from far away can't discern the nature of the 3-characteristics. They practiced samatha for the craving of becoming (bhava-tanha). They also had unwholesome kammas with them. After falling from the Brahma realms even some of them become pigs(not directly from there but devatas can. See Subrahma Deva's story). You all had become Brahma before and as devatas uncountable times. But never had been free from old age, sickness and death. Never had the eyes of insight before. Nothing is more valuable than this eye. The pleasures of heavenly gods are good but Sakka(king of the Tavatimsa Heaven) himself came down to the earth for practice. He had the kammic eyes not the nyanic eyes. Discerning impermanence is nobler than Sakka and the great Brahma gods. After seeing anicca, then the Knowledge of Disenchantment (nibbida nyan) and the ending of anicca are surely realizing Nibbāna. You must work hard to get this eyes. In the future can't find a good teacher like this. Comparing with the whole world very few people have these eyes. Therefore you have to contemplate in order to see more and more and clearer. Don't exchange with them (the status of heavenly gods and Brahma gods). You are gold and they are salt. You must know one's own value. They have to be make wishes for becoming human beings to get this knowledge.

T5.Visākha asked Dhammadinna on attainment of cessation (nirodha sammāpatti). This is nothing to do with you all and useful. So let us continue to another question. How many feelings are there? There are 3-feelings in the body: pleasant, unpleasant and neutral feelings. If one of them exist the other not, always one of them is there. Everytime it needs to catch on with one of them. For our practice, let us extend the knowledge about them. At the physical body pleasant or unpleasant feelings or sensation can appear. From the eye, ear, nose and tongue are neutral feelings. Why? In the seeing just seeing only, because it is neutral feeling. After seeing it's better not to continue. In hearing just hearing and then not becoming pleasant or unpleasant about it. In smelling just smelling and also neutral. If you react to it as disappointed then the mind arrived to the active phase of cognitive process (i.e javana citta). It becomes the mind with aversion. In the beginning state it was neutral. In eating just eating is also neutral. Reacting as I like it or I don't like it and then it becomes a javana citta. There are itches, aches, pains etc. These are happening at their own places. When the body is cold, unpleasant feeling, by using heater become comfortable, then pleasant feeling.

Today, using feeling on practice, if you have satisfaction in the heart, it's pleasant mental feeling (somanasa Vedanā). Unsatisfying is unpleasant mental feeling (domanasa). Whatever happening, it is neither good nor bad and that is neutral feelings. All the feelings which I had just mentioned; if one of them is there then the other are excluded. Why the Buddha called them the feelings aggregate? Because feelings are happening all the times, do you need to look for feeling or don't know their arising? On the body pleasant and unpleasant (sukha and dukkha), and in the heart somanasa and domanasa, exclude the tips of the hairs, tips of the fingers, toes nails, and everywhere feeling can arise. Feeling is conditioned phenomena, e-g feeling arise in the eyes is by the contact of the eyes and form. If the eyes are blind can't arise. Only saṅkhārā and fall into anicca. Sabbe saṅkhārā anicca~ all conditioned phenomena are impermanent. Its arising is conditioned by others. If you can contemplate anicca, it becomes mindfulness of feeling. If you don't, after seeing it becomes wanting, then continues to craving, clinging and action (tanha, upādāna, kamma).[note: Sayadaw always using Dependent Arising in his talks. Therefore need to understand the 12-Links of Patiuasamupada] Seeing as disgusting then anger of dependent arising continue. Seeing without mindfulness become unknowing which lead to dependent arising of ignorance. No insight meditation from the eye door create 3-ways of dependent arising for the round of rebirths. Not knowing these we think it doesn't matter.

But to the Buddha not knowing dependent arising, it's better to use the hot iron bar to poke the eyes. This makes for dying once. Everytime seeing it and not knowing leading to painful rebirths and will die for many times. While seeing contemplate quickly as conditioned phenomena and inconstant, then dependent arising is cut off the 3-unwholesome dhammas to arise (loba, dosa and moha).

Dhammadinna answered the question and I show you how to use it for practice, then it becomes clearer. Knowing the arising and passing away can be free from the taints (asava). From seeing if craving arise, it becomes the taint of sensual pleasure. Not knowing is the taint of ignorance. It's easy to talk. In the real contemplation it becomes late. Can you stop at just seeing? If you can't stop, then contemplate impermanence quickly. The Buddha said that by contemplating impermanence of feeling near death can become arahant or destroy the taints. Sariputta realized the first Path(magga) by contemplating on the body and the later 3-Paths by feeling. His realization came by during the time of listening to the Buddha's talk. By contemplating on the inconstancy of feeling and the mind became sharper. By following of the Buddha's Teaching and at the same time contemplating feeling. Realization can't come by just listening the talk. Listening and contemplation together can become stream-enterer to arahantship in stage by stage. Therefore I taught you very often that the ears listening to the talk and the mind observing the khandhas. Just by listening only and without contemplation can't develop the enlightenment. The mind can't sharp, can't see the truth, can't erode defilement and can't see Nibbāna. By listening and put effort in practice. Don't listen only just for merits. In the suttas it mentioned that by listening and also contemplating. Without this can't stop craving and wrong view.

In hearing also the same, it's conditioned phenomena. Without knowing conditioned phenomena can't know anicca. In the body whatever arising is conditioned phenomena. Their nature is ending with impermanence. Its' arising is becoming and passing away is dying. If you can contemplate in this way, it is pajanati~ means knowing. What do you know? Knowing the inconstancy of conditioned phenomena.
Dīkanakhā listened to the talk and contemplated impermanence and then became Sotāpa&&a (He was Sariputta's nephew. Both listened to the talk on Vedanā given by the Buddha.) Can contemplate in this way and three ways of dependent co-arising not arise. Tongue and taste are also in the same way. Yadā pannāya passati~ when arising observing with wisdom. The contact of the physical body and outside objects are also in the same way. Body sensitivity (kayapasada) comes into existence by kamma. If a being is still alive, this kamma is not finished yet, then body sensitivity will continue to exist. “It is too cold”, then become aversion to it. Therefore if you know it is cold, then instantly~Yadā pannāya passati~contemplate it as impermanence. You know the conditioned phenomena is arising, it has to be arising (samudaya) and passing away (vaya). In reality you see the truth dukkha (dukkha sacca).

Seeing is the truth of the path (magga sacca). If you discern dukkha completely become the Path knowledge. Not discern completely is only insight knowledge. Why Visākha & Dhammadinna were talking about feeling? Because it is the quickest way to arahatship. It was also mentioned by the Buddha (Sayadaw quoted the Pali verse from a sutta). Therefore contemplation on feeling was included in Satipatthānā Sutta because it can reach the goal by itself. Sariputta & Dīkanakhā finished the practice with feeling & no other contemplation. By contemplating feeling other also include. In contemplation take it as a main contemplation. Not knowing the arising is also not knowing the passing away, and then it conceals the truth of dukkha. The Buddha also mentioned that all phenomena arising from the body are the truth of dukkha. Not seeing saṅkhārā can't contemplate anicca. In the Q&A of Visākha & Dhammadinna, they talked about the types of insight only (Both of them already knew the details). Here I use it for describe the practice. Contemplate impermanence of whatever feeling is arising. They are arising all the times. Only concern not knows the arising. Not knowing is become ignorance. Whatever arising is dukkha sacca. Dukkhe a&ānam ~ not knowing dukkha is ignorance.

Ignorance does not stay in this way, and will do something according to its own power. Physical action, verbal action and mental action will follow behind. I'll talk about it later. If ignorance come in become liked animals without shame and fear of consequence. These words came from the Avijjā Sutta of Maha Vagga Samyutta. How bad it is? Not knowing of whatever arising at the 6-sense doors is not knowing the truth of dukkha. In this way everyday is creating actions (kamma), mostly unwholesome actions. In short insight meditation is contemplation of the truth of dukkha. The contact of thought and mind sensitivity (mind-door) create pleasant or unpleasant feelings. These are conditioned phenomena. If become Dukkhe &ānam ( knowing dukkha), then it is become knowledge. Avijjā nirodha saṅkhārā nirodho ~ignorance cease, so do volitional formation (wholesome & unwholesome actions). And then saṅkhārā nirodha vi&&ana nirodho - Volitional formation cease, so do consciousness cease. Birth is ended. It is cessation of birth. Ajati (without birth) is Nibbāna. It is clear that contemplation has the benefit of cutting through dukkha. By doing the job of knowing dukkha, craving (samudaya) is ceased, and realizes the cessation of dukkha (nirodha). Everytime knowing dukkha is factors of the Path (magga), it done the duty of the Four Noble Truths at the same time. By contemplation of impermanence knows the other. (Sayadaw continued to talk about neutral feeling of the mind.) Every moment of contemplation realize the momentary Nibbāna. It is worthy of doing it. You have to contemplate the 5 kinds of feeling. After craving cease and the Path Knowledge appear. By contemplation one clear up one's own dangers. Greed, anger and delusion are inner enemies. If you are giving many reasons for not doing it, you are following the reasoning of the defilement of craving. It is just for your own suffering.

T6. Visākha asked,” Not contemplate pleasant, unpleasant and neutral feeling, what will happen?” Not contemplate pleasant feeling latent defilement of craving will follow. She answered shortly. But you must know that craving, clinging & action will follow. It continues to becoming that birth will follow. This birth was come from pleasant feeling, so peta jati (The birth of hungry ghost). From the point of taints, follow by taint of sensual pleasure (kāmāsava). It refers to greed. Follow by kāmāsava, it also follow by taint of becoming (bhavāsava). It is very rare to find someone with contemplation. People are smiling with pleasant feeling. Not contemplate unpleasant feeling anger will follow. This anger arise from ignorance will lead to animal birth. This is followed by the taint of ignorance (avijjāsava). This taint follows up to the highest heavens (i.e Arupa Brahma Gods) and the knowledge of change of lineage (Gotrabu nyan) in insight meditation. When these feelings are arising, make effort to contemplate. If not it is the path to pets & animal realms. Not contemplate neutral feeling the taint of ignorance follow. This feeling is subtle, only for someone who has knowledge can know about it. Mostly it leads to the animal rebirth. Is it not frightening? Even performing merits without surrounded by insight and then ignorance following with it. It gives advantage to craving. With ignorance that people performing prayers with craving. Then follow by the taints of sensual pleasure, becoming & ignorance. Therefore there are more merit makings for the continuation of rebirth than liberation from it. These are not the results of merits. It is the cause of ignorance without knowing and continues with one's own wishes. Indeed it is rare to find a teacher who can teach people what the Buddha intended for.
Visākha asked,”Are these 3 latent defilement follow behind feelings all the time?” The answer was not always. A person who practices insight meditation not follows by them, if he contemplates impermanence. This is one way of admonishing. I have to admonish you the second way the Buddha mentioned that merits can give the results of up to jhanas, paths and fruits. But wrong knowledge becomes the cause of repeated births. It is the cause of the merit makers. Generosity (caga) is giving up so it is killing the craving (tanha). It is giving up mine, so killing wrong view. Therefore dāna is the dhamma of killing tanha and ditthi. If you don’t know how to do it; it becomes I have so I give, then ditthi come in. I give it so I will enjoy the fruit and then craving come in.

It is depend on the guidance of a wise teacher. Must know how to choose the teaching and always think about that these teachings are reaching to the heart or not(connection with the 4 Noble Truths). If leading to the truth it is precious. The Buddha admitted that he himself did not know the truth before had to wander for a long time in the round of rebirth. Someone has moral virtue (sīla), what should he do? Have to contemplate anicca, dukkha, anatta... etc., the 11 contemplations (disease, tumor, dirt, misery, affliction, alien, disintegrating, empty, anicca, dukkha & anatta). It was questioned by Maha Kotthita & answered by Sariputta. Someone has sīla and practice vipassanā can realize the path and fruit.

Dhammadinna described on the practice. When pleasant feeling arise it is pleasant, and passing away it is dukkha. Therefore contemplate as dukkha sacca, then it cut off the taint of sensual pleasure in the dependent co-arising. When unpleasant feeling arise it is painful , and passing away it is sukha. For neutral feeling, someone has sharp faculty discern anicca. Unpleasant feeling is the opposite of pleasant feeling. We have to contemplate when they arise. Only one can arise. Sukha arise contemplate sukha, and dukkha arise contemplate dukkha. Contemplate both as the truth of dukkha. What is their opposite ? Neutral feeling, it means when it arise the other two are not there. Upekkhā arise must contemplate upekkhā. If not we think that nothing is there. One of them is always arising. Don't say we can't find anything to contemplate. It is similar to say as there is no impermanence. It is like seeing Nibbāna. All the feeling cease is Nibbāna. Therefore continue to contemplate until all feelings are ended. When the mind can't penetrate these 3-feelings can be mix-up. Because the mind follow late. The khandha arise quicker than the mind which is observing. That means defilement come in between them. This makes the realization slower. During contemplation sometime sukha or dukkha or neutral feeling continuously arising. As example for sukha Vedanā – as one sukha & one knowing (i.e nyan) ets., each feeling with each contemplation then defilement can not come in between them. As example, if pain arise and continuously painful, then the mind can't penetrate it. Aversion come in between them. If pleasant feeling continuously pleasant the mind can't penetrate it either. Kilesa come in between them. For the yogis this point is very important. If neutral feeling continues, the mind can't penetrate it. Ignorance come in between them. Greed follow behind sukha, anger follow behind dukkha and ignorance follow behind neutral feeling respectively.

It is not easy to talk about these things. In real practice you have to know that kilesa really come in or not. Do your mind can catch on with each anicca ? You have to observe it. If you are not then increase your effort. You will realize Nibbāna. Not realizing is because of kilesa come in between the practice. Insight knowledge (vipassanā nyan) is the forefront knowledge. The first thing have to develop. The right view of insight knowledge come before hand. Only then the right view of Path Knowledge, which is seeing Nibbāna, will follow. In these two right views; vipassanā right view become sharper and Nibbāna become closer. Never lazy in practice then you will realize it. Without vipassanā right view the leader of the Path right view can’t arise. It was mentioned in the Sagatha Vagga Samyutta.

The knowledge of conformity (anuloma nyan) which is still in the stage of anicca, is conditioned the knowledge of change of lineage which see Nibbāna with proximity condition (anantarapaccayo). Why I use it here? It describes the natural process without a being. It will arise accordingly to the natural law. Knowledge of the Path comes only after the knowledge of change of lineage and seeing Nibbāna. Therefore without knowledge of insight and Path Knowledge can't happen, even stand between them is the knowledge of change of lineage. Don't let the mind of disappointment and doubt come in. May be I am a 2-rooted person(dvietuka). Had I done something wrong to someone? So I can't realize Nibbāna. Don't let these mental states come in. The Buddha guaranteed that if you can listen the truth of dhamma and discern anicca, and then you will realize it (from Anguttara Nikāya). If no defilement come in between anicca and contemplation, you will realize it. Don't think about these things. In some people their doubts and remorse leading them into painful rebirths. Preventing them for realization.

After insight knowledge, then knowledge of change of lineage. After the knowledge of change of lineage, then the Path Knowledge. These are the process of the law of vithicitta (consciousness belonging to a cognitive process). They are always in this process. Worry and remorse (kukkucca) are very bad dhamma and danger of the path. Yogi destroys himself. All practices never become fruitless. The Buddha also gave encouragement. During the dying moment the practicing yogi by putting effort in contemplation can enter the stream to non-returner. If not happen in this way by dying with the mind of insight knowledge will take rebirth in the heavenly realm. As soon as born there and enter the stream. The Buddha mentioned this definitely (Anguttana Nikāya). If kukkucca come in, contemplate it's impermanence. After that continue one's own contemplation, e-g Vedanā, mind etc. For someone who contemplates on feeling, worry is unpleasant mental feeling (domanassa). In contemplation of mind, worry is mind with aversion. Don't look for it. It comes for contemplation. This point is very important.

Visākha asked,”What is the opposite of neutral feeling?” Dhammadinna answered,” It's ignorance.” It is true, everytime neutral feeling arise and not knowing it is ignorance. And then what is the opposite of ignorance. The answer is knowledge or knowing (vijja). If one of them there the other is not. Therefore your contemplation is the path of knowledge. This is the work of true knowledge arising (vijja udapadi) and discernment knowledge arising (&ānam udapadi). What is the opposite of vijja? It is fruition(phala). Vijja is &ānam (knowledge). Fruition is the free mind (vimutti citta). What is the opposite of fruition? It is Nibbāna. Why? For the fruition mind to arise have to practice a lot. It is conditioned phenomena(sankhata dhamma). Nibbāna exist as unconditioned dhamma and without cause. So they are opposite. Visākha was very pleased with her answer. And then the Buddha asked to contemplate fruition as impermanence, because it is conditioned (from the Patthāna). It is sankhata dhamma so ending with anicca. For Nibbāna just only incline towards it. Whatever impermanence contemplate impermanence. Which is permanent just incline towards it. It means stay with the peaceful mind. Therefor I have to mention that incline the mind to the ending of arising & passing phenomena as ending. Don't contemplate Nibbāna. It is not a dhamma for contemplation. It is a reviewing dhamma (paccavekkhana), an investigating dhamma. What is its characteristic and quality ? Can be investigated in this way. It does not matter. The Path is impermanent and Fruition also impermanent. Contemplate conditioned as impermanence(sankhata). As for unconditioned Nibbāna, reviewing as“That it's”, “That it's”.

For ending the dhamma talk, to realize Nibbāna start from the conditioned, conditioned knowledge is not the Path Knowledge, only insight knowledge. The knowledge come out from the conditioned are Path Knowledge and Fruition Knowledge. Insight knowledge is taken the objects of conditioned. Contemplate conditioned as anicca is insight knowledge. After the ending of the insight knowledge, you will see the unconditioned, i.e Nibbāna. Why? It is free from the conditioned. Vipassanā practice is finished when the practice of the conditioned is ended. Then the knowledge incline towards the unconditioned will happen. You can't find Nibbāna inside the province of conditioned. If it is possible, it must be Ditthi-Nibbāna (wrong view Nibbāna). Eating is good, drinking is good, and people take these things as momentary Nibbāna. It is wrong view Nibbāna. Therefore if you want Nibbāna, have to come out from the province of conditioned. If you don't know the conditioned then can't find out the exit. The arising is conditioned and the passing away is anicca. If you can't see this then it is impossible. First make oneself from blind worldling into right view worldling (kalyna phutujana). And then realize the Path Knowledge of noble view and you will see Nibbāna. Blind worldling does not see the conditioned but good worldling see it. If he sees the unconditioned then becomes a noble person. As example, Sariputta and Maha-Mogallana met Sanjaya (their first teacher) , they were worldlings. After met with Asajit (one of the first 5-disciples of the Buddha) became good worldlings, later became noble persons. Don't take the blind worldling as 3-rooted or 2-rooted person (tihetuka or dvihetuka) only as without a good spiritual friend. Before not met the Buddha, all are in blindness. Therefore don't have doubt about it.

最後由 Avuso 於 2016-08-13, 21:55 編輯,總共編輯了 1 次。

文章: 400
註冊時間: 2004-09-19, 08:00

Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 1-4

文章 Avuso » 2016-07-23, 23:33

[4] Nandaka's Exhortation
(18th To 19th December 1961)

[Note: Sayadaw based his talks from the suttas not necessarily the exact serial ways or took all of them as mentioned in the suttas. He only used the points in the suttas to explain the dhammas and about practice.]

I condense the story of Nandaka and the bhikkhunīs told by Sayadaw. It was based on Nandaka's Exhortation, Suttas No.146, Majjhima Nikāya .
T1. The Buddha sent monks to teach the bhikkhunīs regularly. Everyone except Nandaka never willing to give his service. Everytime when his turn arrived, he gave various reasons not to go. Because in some of his past lives as kings they were his consorts. At the Buddha time many arahants had psychic powers to know people's past lives. Then one day the Buddha asked Ananda who made arrangements to teach the bhikkhunīs. After the Buddha knew the situation and ordered Nandaka to teach the bhikkhunīs.

Concern with the practice of vipassanā, I'll talk about Nandaka and 500 bhikkhunīs. There are 2 types of intimacy. In the past lives one had intimacy with one another. And then in this life one knows each other and become close relationship. He invited them that if they did not understand and not clear about what he said and could ask him. If he asked them they should answer. He talked about feeling by the sense doors. Here is form (visual object). It is particle element. These particles elements are formed by 8 fundamental elements. These are elements of earth, water, fire, air, color, smell, taste and nutriment. Are the visual form permanence or impermanence ? It is impermanence. In that which is impermanence easeful (sukha) or stressful (dukkha). It is stressful. And it is fitting to regard what is impermanence, stressful as: This is mine. This is myself. This is what I am? No, Ven. Sir. Why is that? Because we have already seen it well as it has come to be, with right discernment. Even you all know it before, by hearing again more beneficial.(After this Sayadaw continued to the other 5 sense objects, from sound to idea=dhamma arom)

(After the 6 sense objects, Sayadaw continued to talk about the 6 sense doors) The eye is nicca or anicca and sukha or dukkha? It is anicca and dukkha, Ven. Sir. If anicca and dukkha, can you say, this is mine, this I am and this is myself. No. Ven. Sir, we had practiced and knew this before (The other 5 doors are also in the same way).

(After the 6 sense doors, Sayadaw continued to talk about the 6 consciousness arise from the contact of 6 sense objects and the 6 sense doors) When the eye meet the form, eye consciousness arise. The eye consciousness is nicca or anicca and sukha or dukkha? It is anicca and dukkha, Ven. Sir. If it is anicca and dukkha, can you say, this is mine, this I am and this is myself. No. Ven. Sir, we had practiced and knew this before (The other 5 consciousness are also in the same way).

Feeling arise from eye consciousness is permanent or impermanent? It is impermanence, Ven. Sir. If impermanent sukha or dukkha? Dukkha, Ven.Sir. If it is anicca and dukkha, can you say, this is mine, this I am and this is myself. No, Ven. Sir. There are 6 kinds of feeling. Feeling arise from the eye, from the ear, from the nose, from the tongue and from the mind door. Contemplate the impermanence of feeling is come from these Pali Suttas. If you extend them it's 6 kinds. These are only in brief. You can extend more than that, 18 kinds also true(6 sense doors x 3types of feeling=18 ). Nandaka gave examples for his talk. Put oil and wick in a container and then lit the fire. Because of the fire, light arise or appear. There are 4 objects: oil, wick, fire, light. Feeling arise from the 3 impermanent objects. Therefore feeling also impermanence. Here eye form,eye consciousness and feeling are similar to oil, wick, fire and light. The elements inside the 8 material phenomena are impermanent (form and eye sensitivity). Eye consciousness also impermanence. Feeling arise from them also impermanence. Therefore can't make feeling become permanence which come from the 3 impermanence. Why? The 3 causes are impermanent. You can say feeling is anicca, dukkha and anatta. If the fire die out, the light has to be die out first, Why is that? Because it has rely on the other 3. In the eye when eye consciousness arise it arise together with feeling. Contemplate eye consciousness as impermanence. Can you say this is mine, this I am, this is myself. Don't say I saw it. Feeling arise from the eye is by 3 causes. These causes are impermanent, so feeling must be impermanent. As example, a son dies, because the parents themselves are impermanent. Can you say why it happened to me? If you said this then wrong view had followed you. Then you have permanent perception, knowing and view. With wrong view when a child dies or opposing us, then we are in sorrow, lamentation and stress. Now, you yourself are impermanent. You all are still alive because of the continuation of the impermanent conditions. Without these continuation you'll die. It is liked stopping the dynamo. If you can't move the conditioned out never see anicca. Anicca is covered up by continuity. Continuity means continuous replacements from behind. So can't see anicca. The replacements are so quick that can't see the inconstancy. Look at it in this way. Water is flowing from the north to the south direction. Drop colour paints of white, blue and yellow respectively. Stay a little below of the droppings and watch. The white colour paint flow down the blue one arrive and then the yellow one. If you ask is it the same water? The first water is already flow downwards by the evidence of the colour changes. If the water is always there then white, blue and yellow paints would never flow downwards. Here also the same way, eye consciousness replacing the feelings. It is not the first feeling, the later feeling. The first seeing disappear and replacing with the later one.

The same seeing means can't overcome the replacement that saying as seeing the same things. Then you can't leave(move) out the relationship. Seeing the same thing is view of permanence. This is the view to painful rebirth. If you want to dispel this view must know the difference of the replacement is one thing and the passing away is another thing. I'll explain the contemplation of the eye door. On the wall there are the numbers of 1,2,3,4. After you had seen number 1, and you see number 2. After you see number 2 and then you see number 3. If not in this way, you'll only see number 1 continuously. Do you see only number 1? After number 1 disappear you see number 2. After number 2 disappear you see number 3. In the same way you have to know that after the old ones are passing away and the new ones are arising. If not you can't even count the numbers, number 1 only. The first feeling can't feel the second feeling. We see it passing away, passing away ..etc. Another seeing here and it also passing away here etc. Can't move away from the place. Contemplate insight here. As an example, pain arise on the body. It is paining. It arises and passes away, another pain arise and pass away. It is passing away that has to replace; it is passing away that it has to replace..etc. Never forget this point. If you are watching at it, the knowledge of “It is not the same one before; It is not the same one before..etc.” will develop. If you know it is not the same one before, you are seeing the impermanence. It is the method of uncover the continuity(santati) which covering up the anicca.

Nandaka was handling the point of the cause is impermanent, so the result. After sense object, sense door and sense consciousness arise that feeling can happen. Three causes are impermanent, so the result is impermanent. Before the continuity arises, it is impermanent. So contemplate anicca. His instruction was this way. Feeling on seeing, hearing on hearing…etc. Never take them as permanence. The causes are impermanent and the results are also impermanent. What is the benefit of this way of knowing? During the seeing affection do not arise, clinging, action and birth are not happen. After seeing and follow by knowing which cut off dependent co-arising. This is not include in the Sutta. Without this point you may ask the question of why they became arahants. If seeing and become wanting, then craving come in and follow the law of nature(dhammaniyama) to birth(jati). If you can contemplate have the benefit to Nibbāna. Nibbāna become near by contemplation and far away without it. Vedanā nirodha tanha nirodho~ feeling cease so do craving cease……jara-marana nirodho ~ old age and death cease. Becoming a Buddha was cut-off the Dependent Co-arising with the Path Knowledge. The Four Noble Truths arise together. Impermanence of feeling is dukkha sacca, contemplation knowledge is magga sacca, dying of craving is samudaya sacca, not becoming of birth, old age and death is nirodha sacca.

Tanha nirodha khandha nirodho Nibbānam ~ the cessation of craving is the cessation of the aggregates which is Nibbāna. In the teaching process it is different, but in practice happen together. Finished off the future dukkha to come is Nibbāna. This is the real Nibbāna. Nibbāna has peaceful characteristic. In contemplation eradicate craving and extinguish heat. If craving extinct heat also extinguish. Is there any dukkha created by it? Without fire the heat also gone. The fire is gone out with the fuel. With fire and fuel it is burning. Who had the experience of without fire and fuel? The one who contemplate. Nibbāna is the job of a knowledge man (nyan) and not an action (kammic action) or kamma. It is the duty of knowledge (nyan). Therefore, is Nibbāna the way of action or knowledge is evident by this. Action (kamma) is the far cause(upanisaya=decisive support) and knowledge(nyan) is the near cause(magga-paccayo=path condition). The Buddha said that dhamma destroy defilement is the dhamma to Nibbāna. The Path Knowledge destroy kilesa and it companions; birth, old age and death will not come. The Path Knowledge experience Nibbāna. Magga is nyan. Therefore if you do this job, not necessary to have doubt about can I realize Nibbāna or have any perfection (paramis)? If you can cut off kilesa and you will. Kilesa had been cut off is Nibbāna. Samudaya (craving) forbid Nibbāna. What is the characteristic of samudaya? It has the nature of forbidding(palibodhato). Therefore if he comes in just forbidding. It can even forbid wholesome matters, even more so for Nibbāna. Only Path Knowledge overcome it. Dāna and samatha can't do it. Even can be given encouragement for the plenty in next life to come. Keeping precepts (sīla) are also for long life. It can interfere in these matters. It can be followed up to the knowledge of change of lineage (gotrabu nyan). It becomes sure that if you don't kill him (tanha) can't realize Nibbāna. It can do to living beings upside down in the 31 realms of existence. The bhikkhunīs only knew impermanence before. Now Nandaka taught them that impermanence gave birth to impermanence. The three causes are impermanent and the one result is also impermanent. Take this into your heart. He gave another simile. Tree has root, because of it the tree come into being. After the growth of the tree, its shadow appears. After the tree is destroyed, the shadow of the tree which is created by it can be survive? Which one is perished first? It's the shadow. Why? Tree still had the characteristic of continuity but the shadow doesn't. Here feeling (vedanā) is liked the shadow. It has been rely on the other three. If it has to be perish, has to be the first one.

I will explain in the way of conditional relations (patthāna). It becomes more profound. The form is happening before-hand(purejata=pre-nascence condition). Eye sensitively also before feeling, therefore purejata. Feeling happen depending on them. If these two not happen before, is there any contact(phassa)? Then instantly eye consciousness arise. It's pleasant to see it, then feeling arise. These two material phenomena arise before are pre-nascence condition. Mind and feeling are arising together(sahajata=co-nascence condition).

If the two died before could they left behind? When the tree fell the shadow could not survive is become clear. Eye-sensitivity is the root, form is the tree, branches are consciousness and the shadow is feeling. If the tree fell can shadow be existed? The tree is older easy to old and die before. Explain by way of conditional relations is to dispel your doubt(vicikicca). If you think why it is happening then doubt come in. It will hinder the Path Knowledge. In today talk, 3-causes are impermanent, so that the result is also. You must know this point clear. This instruction is for knowing. In practice, contemplate as after seeing, it is passing away. If you know directly it is not there and dispel wrong view. After overcoming doubt and by contemplation and know that it is arising here and passing away here. Then it kills wrong view. By way of conditional relations dispel doubt and contemplation of impermanence dispels wrong view. You must remember this point. After dispel wrong view and doubt by way of teaching the practice can be completed. Without it, impossible. If something happen doubt will come in. In practice no need to use cause and effect. Just only arising here and passing away here. Not explaining these things before hand and during vipassanā practice it can be a hindrance. Not knowing the causes have doubt and not knowing inconstancy (impermanence) have wrong view and all these will not die out. Any kinds of feeling only has these 3-causes. People think to know the Four Noble Truths have to work through one by one. It is not so. If you discern anicca, all these are working together. As the simile of a boat crossing a river. Each contemplation involve Four together. By listening and knowing these things not fall into painful rebirth for one life.

(T2) Encounter with the Buddha's Teaching was a decisive support condition (upanisaya). These people had done merits to transcend round of existence (vivatta dānas) in this Buddha's dispensation (sasana). (Sayadaw mentioned the past lives of Nandaka & bhikkhunīs). Very long in samsāra is not good. Now, you all are have the supportive conditions of your past lives that met me. Now, it needs to develop the path conditions(magga paccayo). Don't misuse the chances and opportunities of meeting with the Buddha's Teachings and a good teacher.(From here mentioned the difficulties of born as human beings, encounter the Buddha's Teachings, hearing the teachings on truths(sacca dhammas) and understanding them. The Buddha compared these with two similes. The first one is dropping a needle from the Brahma World and hitting the other needle in the human world is very difficult. But the above mentioned chances are more difficult than that. The second one is a blind turtle in the ocean come to the ocean surface only once in every hundred years. There is a wooden yoke with a hole on it, is floating on the ocean water. In these kinds of situations, even one day the turtle's head can catch up in the hole of the wooden yoke. But the above mentioned chances are more difficult than that.)

Now you all come up to this place (mostly from painful rebirths) with a lot of difficulties. If you lost these chances will encounter more difficulties. You come here in your old age(referred to old disciples in the audiences) but with the ignorance father and craving mother wasting all your precious times before. Liked a happy blind and crazy person. If you continue to do things for the growth of samsāra, you will go back to difficult situation. Don't live your lives carelessly. Try to practice for the knowledge of the khandha. Before done away with your dukkha don't live a cold life. This is foolishness and under the sway of ignorance and craving. Ignorance is wrong knowledge. At the bad side used as knowledge. It covers up the good side. As example, the knowledge of making atomic bomb(Sayadaw also mentioned the cruelty of meat industry). You all think it as outstanding. Use it in worldly matter is ignorance and transcending the world is wisdom. Under the influence of worldly or wrong knowledge and materially progress as fortunate to development. In foreign countries the sasana is degenerating and materially or economically develop. May be you think that they are clever. It's not praiseworthy. It is the development of wrong knowledge and degeneration of right knowledge.

Regarding on feeling someone who is sharp wisdom faculty contemplate neutral feeling in seeing. Who has slow faculty can do it later at the active stage. Sharp person at the eye-consciousness and slow person at the later stage of pleasant or unpleasant phenomena. Whatever it is suitable for contemplation. Sharp witted person (khippabhinna) at eye-conciousness and slow-witted person (dantabinna) at cognitive process such as loba, domanassa ets. It depends on sharp and slow vipassanā faculties. By experienced practice can do it at the eye-consciousness. (continued the Sutta, the simile of tree and shadow). Feeling (shadow of the tree) arise later, but disappear first. Because it has to depend on others. Whatever feeling arise have to contemplate. Without it greed, anger and delusion arise. If you contemplate they will die away. Combine all feelings only 3 kinds, with extension 6 kinds and 18 kinds. The benefit of contemplation of feeling is - there is a dead cow. With a sharp carving knife to carve it up. There are skin, muscles and connective tissues between the outer hide and inner flesh. These connect the hide and inner flesh. After the carving, the hide and the cow separated. The concept of cow disappear or not? These are attached to each other before by skin, muscles and connective tissues. By using the knife of the path factors or enlightenment factors to cut them off. Craving pulls the external base (āyatana) and internal base together. Therefore the concept of cow not disappear. You don't need to afraid the internal and external bases. Have to be afraid craving which attached to them. It is important to cut off craving. To cut off others also depend on the craving.

It is better to cut off craving directly. You all take things outside as mine, and inside also mine. Attachment to inside and outside is craving. Therefore have to cut off craving. Nandaka talked about the cutting off craving. At the same time bhikkhunīs were listening and contemplating. By the contemplation of impermanence of feeling, craving can not come in. Let us cutting off the craving of tissues and muscles by enlightenment factors.

In this sutta, talking about the factors of enlightenment only(Bojjhaṅga), without mentioned factors of the path. But note it in this way. Talking about factors of enlightenment is to understand the Noble Truth. Path factors are to arrive Nibbāna. They are the same idea. Don't take it as differently. If you practice Satipatthanā; the enlightenment factors, the path factors, the powers and the faculties are all included. The 37 Requisites of Enlightenment (Bodhipakkhiya Damma) and including all the mental factors are in it. Bodhi is nyan (knowledge) and pakkhiya is the groups to know the truth. It's impossible by one only. Only by combination can know the truth, so Bodhipakkhiya. If you ask should we have to do each one of them. All are included in your contemplation of impermanence. In the Sutta mentioned differently and people think you have to do all of them. I will explain them. As example, contemplate impermanence of feeling; mindfulness (sati), concentration (samādhi), right view (dhammavijaya), effort (viriya), rapture (piti) and tranquility (passadhi) are together with samādhi. To understand the equanimity factors of Bojjhaṅga in this way. When you see impermanence, no wanting and no anger arise. You are contemplating with equanimity of insight (vipassanupekkhā). Therefore it also includes Upekkhā. Just knowing with impermanence, no pleasant or unpleasant happen and without confusion (moha). The sense object is neutral (Upekkhā). (Outside objects are nothing to do with good or bad, only our reaction to it.) The contemplating mind becomes equanimous insight (vipassanupekkhā). It is insight knowledge and also equanimity. Where these things come from? It was in the Development of the Faculties (Indriya-bhavana Sutta, Sutta No.152). Only insight knowledge become the groups to know the truth and vipassanā knowledge are the groups on the way to Nibbāna. Like a journey on the way and to the end. Arriving at Path Knowledge become penetration of the truth. To be enlightened start from the beginning of the process. The cause for enlightenment is vipassanā bodhi. In the Saṁyutta Nikāya, the Buddha answered that (the question was posed by a monk) the way to Nibbāna was vipassanā (Sayadaw gave a talk on this). Therefore you will finish the journey by insight. In the Mahavagga Saṁyutta, by Satipatthanā practice it becomes bodhi. You don't need to do the Bojjhaṅga specially. It is the Four Satipatthanā Practice. With your knowledge(nyan) to observe and see your khandhas as Dukkha Sacca.

Dependent on the sharpness of your knowledge the phenomena will show itself. In Maha Vagga, the Buddha said if you do the Satipatthanā all included. By changing the name don't think it as not include. Sammā-ditthi means right seeing and dhammavijaya means analytical seeing or not mix-up in seeing. Both of them are mental factors of wisdom. By doing Satipatthanā all Bojihanga included. The ear listened to the dhamma talk and the mind observed the khandhas. And then the mind become sharp(referred to the bhikkhunīs). In practice also the same. During contemplation insight knowledge and after become sharper transcendental knowledge. In the end of the talk the bhikkhunīs realized the Dhamma according to each of their aspiration. If your aspiration is low, the desire and effort are small. Higher aspiration of mind reaching higher standard. Therefore practitioners should correct their mind for ending khandha dukkha in this lift time. Without decisive support conditions and path conditions(upanisaya and magga paccayo) can't end Dukkha .
最後由 Avuso 於 2016-08-13, 21:59 編輯,總共編輯了 1 次。

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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 1-5

文章 Avuso » 2016-07-23, 23:46

[5] The Continuation of Dependent Arising
(15th November 1960)

This body is the continuation of dependent arising from the 6-sense doors. If you know the arising phenomena will dispel annihilation. If you see the disappearing of phenomena dispel the stability view of permanence, knowing that the results are coming from the causes dispel view of annihilation. Understanding the process of dependent arising is the arising & passing away of phenomena wrong views fall off. After dispelling wrong view and practice will appreciate impermanent nature. It's also in the middle way. The middle way is the Noble Eight Fold Path. As U Tan Daing's saying (later became one of his closed disciples), it happened by itself and gone by itself seems like a not-self nature. It's still a colloquial language with wrong view. The usage by one who has dispelled wrong view is the causes are passing away and also the results are. The causes are arising and so do the results are. Then it clears up views of permanence and annihilation. Arising by causes and passing way by causes is on the middle way. Contemplation without any knowledge before-hand is impossible. Without understanding the dependent arising never dispel wrong view. This was mentioned by the Buddha himself. The knowledge of rise and fall (udayabbaya&ānam) will come later. Before it there are two other knowledge. The knowledge of mind & form and the knowledge of cause & effect. Without these knowledge is practicing with wrong view. To give up wrong view should contemplate the mind; for craving contemplate feeling. According to the commentary, wrong view is mostly ingrained in the mind. By observing one's own mind no need to find a place for practice.

Whatever mind state arise it is the object of insight. Only need to follow by contemplation. Observe (1) with (2). This is the whole vipassanā. Every (1) arising and following with (2), then no craving and clinging can follow behind. (1) is anicca and (2) is vipassanā knowledge(nyan). Contemplate every mind arise. You can't know the bhavanga citta (life-continuum) and also not necessary. (1) is the mind arising (2) is the observing mind.(U Tun Yin, a disciple, asked Sayadaw, is it necessary to find a quiet place for practice?)(Sayadaw answered that if he would not control his mind he can) Practicing vipassanā can be contemplated anywhere. Some were doing their jobs and achieved realization. If you delay your practice and death come earlier will be difficult. As an example, the two samatha teachers of the Bodhisatta died a little earlier that missed the chances for enlightenment.(Sayadaw continued to explain how to contemplate impermanence.) Example, the mind of wanting to eat arise and when you contemplate it , you see that it's not there anymore. Don't take it as the concept of nothingness (abhava pa&&atti). Without the wanting to eat mind cease, the observing mind can't arise. vipassanā is to see the non-existence. I'll explain it. People are saying as seeing impermanence. We know that a man can't alive with 2 minds. Contemplate (1) with (2) and seeing that (1) is not there anymore. This is contemplating non-existence. We know the earlier mind was not there is insight knowledge (vipassanā nyan). (U Tun Yin said to Sayadaw that it was not clear to him.) Now, you are alive with this mind moment. Alive with the wanting to eat mind. The Buddha asked to observe this mind. When you observe and is it there? vipassanā means contemplate the non-existence. Non-existence of the first mind. But don't take it as a concept. Not exist is nothingness concept. Asking you to contemplate the non-existence is true. If you contemplate the existence then it becomes permanence. A man alive with each arising mind, not with the passing away mind and impossible nature. When the observing mind come in seeing the non-existence. vipassanā means to observe the non-existence. If you observe the existence it becomes permanence (nicca). vipassanā is to see the impermanent characteristics. This refinement is leading to Nibbāna element. If it is, coarse can't see it. Is it contemplate the totally non-existence or the non-existence of the existence? It's knowing the non-existence of the existence. If I ask you to contemplate nothingness then become a concept. It's called tissari pannatti ~ half concept. By contemplating the existence to non-existence that the concept of a person disappear. Commentary also explained in this way. (Sayadaw recited the Pali verse) Hutava~after arising, abhavattena ~ and not exist, aniccam~is impermenent. (Hutava abhavattena aniccam)(After arising and not exist is impermanent). Therefore observe the existence to non-existence. Observe oneself dies and oneself not exists or oneself dies and totally disappears. The higher insight knowledge also observe (1) with (2). If you don't know the Satipatthanā, then never mind. Can observe the (1) with (2) is enough.

The meaning of tissari pa&&atti is the contemplation of the non-existence dhamma. Contemplate the non-existence of the arising dhamma. Tissari - That arising dhamma, Pa&&atti - of non-existence. It's arising & passing away. It's called udayabbaya nyan. The meaning of can't alive with 2-minds is after arising has to passing away. At first I said contemplate (1) with (2). After you understand it, I have to say again to contemplate the non-existence of (1) with (2). People are talking about 10-insight knowledge or 16-insight knowledge. But in the end all are contemplating (1) with (2). To become a Buddha was between feeling and craving. Don't let craving come in. The Buddha was arisen not in India. It was the concept Buddha. The real paramattha Buddha was between feeling and craving. The Path (magga) is cutting actions (kamma). The Path of Stream Entry (sotāpatti magga) is cutting all the kammas to painful rebirths (dugati bhava). Therefore the Buddha delivered on the 4-types of kamma in The Kukuravati Sutta. Neither black nor white kammas are from all the insight knowledge to Path Knowledge. (See Kukuravati Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya)
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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 1-6

文章 Avuso » 2016-07-31, 17:21

[6] Satipatham Objects and the Contemplative Mind
(16th September 1961)

The Buddha gave a talk for 3 reasons. By requesting, not requesting by anyone and depending on the events and situations. Just by compassion gave a teaching without anyone request. This is nothing to do with suitable or unsuitable situations. As an example for the depending on a situation was the quarrel between his 2-sides of relatives for water problem. Without any request he gave the Fool & the Wise discourse. The Buddha had the most disapproving attitude for getting another khandha(rebirth). It would make him happiest if someone did not having it. In the past, because of ignorance and volitional formation, in this life we had rebirth consciousness, mind/body, internal bases, contact, feeling or the 5-khandhas (avijjā->saṅkhārā ->vinnānam->nāmarūpam->salāyatanam->phassa->Vedanā). In suttas described as a series. In reality it is happening together (from vinnānam to Vedanā=5-khandhas).In suttas described as a series. In reality it is happening together (from vinnānam to Vedanā=5-khandhas). In the suttas mentioned 3-types of feeling arise. This is intellectual knowledge (&āta prinna).The real thing is contemplation (Tirana parinna). In practice only each feeling is arising and must know it when arise.Only with Tirana pari&&a that pahana parinna (abandoning of defilement) can be possible. Whatever arising, know it and observe it. When the observing mind come in , the arising phenomena already pass away. Why I say this? Because two feelings can't happen at the same time. During the observed feeling arising, the observing feeling can't arise. Two feelings can't appear together. Why? The arising feeling is pleasant feeling and the observing mind is neutral feeling. The observed feeling is anicca, and the observing mind is is saṅkhārā. Saṅkhārā observes the anicca. The arising dhamma or saṅkhārā (observing mind) is observing the passing away dhamma. (Here it’s important to understand the term saṅkhārā. Whatever arising dhamma is saṅkhārā arise by conditions)

Saṅkhārā observes the anicca. Passing away is annica. The arising dhamma is saṅkhārā. Here it's arising, when you look at it and already disappeared. The disappearance and the arising mind or observing mind meet together. If I don't explain this, what happen to the yogis. They will think the contemplative mind (observing mind) is constant or permanent. As like saying my mind is fixing on the object become permanent view (sasata ditthi). The contemplative mind is saṅkhārā anicca and also the arising dhamma (both of them are saṅkhārā anicca). Without dispelling wrong view first, vipassanā; become fruitless (Sayadaw in many his talks emphasized this important point very often. We had many evidences from the Buddha time to the present yogis.). The Buddha concerned about was people could not dispel wrong views. Sometime you are saying that we are observing but can't see impermanence. It seems that the observing mind is permanent. Contemplate the anicca with saṅkhārā. This dhamma is quite difficult but also very true. If not the objects (arammana) are anicca and the observing mind (arammanika) is nicca. Practice with this wrong view can't succeed.In Visuddhimagga commentary- saṅkhārā dhamma contemplate the saṅkhārā dhamma-saṅkhāre saṅkhārā vipassanti. In this way wrong view can be fall off from both sides. If not it will be like Sarti monk who had permanent wrong view. He took all other dhammas except consciousness were passing away. With wrong view sotāpatti magga can't arise. Therefore teacher is important. Gautama Buddha was a short life span Buddha so he left a lot of dhamma teachings behind him for the later generations. Need to be made more clearance here. When the object of saṅkhārā showing anicca, the observing mind saṅkhārā is observing it. An example is a rat comes in from the entrance door, do you see it before entering or after entering? You see it after entering. Here also the same. The dhamma arise and you see it or know it. Before the rat comes in you are not looking at it. After the rat comes in and the seeing mind arise. The observed object is anicca, and the observing mind is saṅkhārā.
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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 1-7

文章 Avuso » 2016-08-01, 22:06

[7] The Four Arahants and an Ordinary Monk
(19th October 1961)

The first arahant contemplated on the 6-contacts (phassa)(The 6-sense objects contact with the 6-sense doors). The eyes meet the form feeling arise. Contact is phassa and feeling is Vedanā. He contemplated their impermanence, disenchantment and their ending. These 3-knowledge develop step by step.

The second arahant contemplated the 5-khandhas and seeing impermanence (anicca). (In the same way as above develop 3 stages and the ending of anicca and realized Nibbāna) The third arahant contemplated the 4-great elements and realized Nibbāna. The fourth arahant contemplated whatever arising as impermanence. Seeing impermanence is yathabuta nyan (the knowledge of seeing as it is), disenchantment is nibbida nyan and after penetrated it as dukkha sacca, the Path Knowledge arise and seeing Nibbāna.

A worldly monk came to the first arahant and asked him how he realized Nibbāna. Contemplate the impermanence of the 6-kinds of contact will realize Nibbāna. He went to the second arahant and asked the same question. You have the right view. Right view is Nibbāna. Tell me what to contemplate to get Nibbāna right view. The monk gave the answer of his experience. The difference between them are the numbers of 6 and 5. So it was dissatisfied him. Both of them were talking about contemplation of impermanence. He did not take the main point of contemplation of anicca, only aware of the 6 and 5 numbers of differences. And then went to the 3rd arahant and asked the same question. It's like give a talk to a mathematician. After the 3rd arahant went to the 4th and asked the same question. He was even worse only talked about anicca. The worldly monk dissatisfied with all the answers. He could not take the point. They were all talking about the important of seeing impermanence and not the numbers of 6,5,4,1. The dissatisfaction came from following or chasing the numbers. The main point is impermanence. Have to follow the anicca, dukkha, anatta and dukkha sacca. Nibbāna is only one. Don't be confused. There are 12-links of Dependent Arising but at the end of each one of the link only impermanence exist. Catch hold of this point. The arising & passing away is the Real Way to Nibbāna. Whatever the teachers are talking about the decision to arrive Nibbāna is impossible without seeing anicca. So don't make any accusation to anyone. Their teachings are also right(may be Sayadaw referred to the systems existed in his time). There are difference without holding the main point of impermanence. Dhamma without impermanence will not arrive to Nibbāna. Make this point clear. If you discern impermanence it's right dhamma. Start from impermanence. Masters in the Ti-pitaka also start from anicca. After that the monk went to ask the Buddha. The difference were only on the way of practice. The Buddha explained with a simile. Dependent on the seasons the riddle tree(in Burmese Pauk tree) has different forms. During flowering season it's red. During bearing fruits season like an acacia tree,etc. There are 5-khandhas. Have to contemplate all the five or their impermanent nature? The Buddha talked for not going wrong. It's important to follow the root and not each of them. Following whatever dhamma arising and they will teach you. They will tell you the Truth, ”I am not here anymore”,”I am not here anymore”. When it is saying not there by following with nodding your head. In this way craving, conceit, wrong view (tanha, māna, ditthi) or the papanca dhamma (proliferation) cannot come in. Impermanence is calling you Ehi-passiko~come and contemplate me. Sanditthiko~you have to follow it by direct experience. The arising dhamma is Ehi-passiko and the contemplative mind is Sanditthiko. People are suffered for not following the dhamma calling. Dhamma is calling you and also disappearing. It's something like someone is drowning and at the same time looking for water.

Here also the same. If you have khandhas and also have impermanence. You have to blame yourself for don't have the seeing eye. The teacher need to fix the eye for you. Don't looking for dhamma, but a teacher who can fix the eye for you. People are asking for dhamma is quite difficult for me. Because the body is dhamma. The 5-khandhas divided by Satipatthanā become 4-Satipatthanā. Āyatana, dhātu, … etc., all are including in these 4. This is the dhamma taught by every Buddha. It looks like herding for 4-cows. Form, feeling, mind whatever you are contemplating try to discern anicca. All of them are converging at anicca. Therefore don't be too many dhammas. Although the Buddha entered Nibbāna he left 3-cups of medicines behind. Anicca, dukkha and anatta medicines. Contemplate anicca more and more and become mature and then anicca become Truth of Dukkha. At first you are seeing impermanence. After maturing it become disenchantment. At last arriving at the most mature stage you can make a decision that it's truly dukkha sacca. And then all are ended, and here is not changing. The mind becomes sharp. Why it becomes sharp? By sharping a knife, there are beginning, middle and the end stages. Which stage is more sharper? All 3-stages are the same knife. The mind process is also in this way. Just observe. Fulfillment of perfection (parami) is not like a bucket overflow with water. It's talking about the mind(nyan) becomes sharp. Therefore your duty is like sharpening a knife. Continue to sharpen the mind. The first sharpening kill the active defilement(kilesas). The second one kill the defilement arising from the mind. The most sharpen one kill the latent defilement(anusaya). It's the knife can kill all the 3-types of kilesas. Whatever contemplation is to see anicca.

文章: 400
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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 1-8

文章 Avuso » 2016-08-04, 23:43

[8] Samatha And Vipassanā
( 20th October 1961)

(Sayadaw mentioned a monk named Asajit who was seriously ill. The Buddha went to see him and gave instruction for practice.) He had dukkha Vedanā and could not develop samādhi and in low spirit. The Buddha told him that in his sasana samādhi was not taken as the essence of the teaching. vipassanā practice was the main one. May be you are saying we are practicing quite a long time now. But still don't have samādhi. Never be in low spirit even your samādhi is weak. Samādhi is not the real essence in the Buddha's sasana. Asajit's mind became in high spirit again. Samādhi is only a supportive dhamma and wisdom is the main one. Pay attention to what I said. Then the Buddha asked him practiced vipassanā. Here is feeling, mind, the 5-khandhas. I ask you and give me the answer. The Buddha turned his mind to the contemplative object. His samādhi was unstable and also very ill, so the Buddha taught him insight practice on the khandhas.

From now on you all should develop the habitual kamma(acinna kamma). Every feeling arising contemplate impermanence. People have strong wrong view contemplate the mind and strong craving on feeling. Anytime make it as a habitual kamma. Acinna kamma means continuous practice. I really remind you for this. Why? You are searching for wealth with desire. And don't want to separate from the children(sons and daughters). The wealth you had worked for left behind including the children. It will be difficult for dying. All these things are not important. Should develop the habitual kamma told by the Buddha. Knowledge (nyan) means continuous practice.

Contemplate a lot on the mind and feeling. Impermanence (anicca) and seeing impermanence (anicca nyan) must happen simultaneously(The same meaning as seeing anicca.). Practice everyday is acinna kamma. With a lot of habitual practice and when the time of death come ,you don't want to separate from your family members. And also don't want to let go of your wealth. All these can come in to your mind at that time. Give an example for the above situation, habitual kamma is like a strong flowing current water. The mind doesn't want to separate with family members and wealth are like a piece of wood come across the current. The current is too strong and striking the wood away. Your everyday vipassanā practice is like strong water current. At that time the habitual wholesome kamma gives the result and the unwholesome asanna kamma(kamma come in at the time of dying) shun away. At the time of dying to be successful urgently make the preparation before-hand.

Acinna kamma is everyday training. Asanna kamma is the kamma come in near dying. If you don't do vipassanā, asunna kamma will give the result. It's frightening. Attachment to family member leading to painful rebirths. Attachment is craving. According to Dependent Arising: Tanha->upādāna->kamma->painful rebirth. Asanna kamma throw you down there. You all have wholesome kammas and merits. But you are not doing these things all the time. You must continuous training with one of the Four Satipatthanā. Cars, properties, houses are enemies. They will come to you near dying. These are fearful things. These are asanna kammas close to the dying moment of the mind. They are arising near the death consciousness. Some of the Buddha's disciples(including monks and laypeople) and monk disciples took painful rebirths were these asanna kammas. That is because they did not possess vipassanā knowledge. With Path Knowledge these kammas can't do anything to you. You must develop acinna kamma. Queen Mallikā at her near dying, asanna kamma come in and she fall into hell. She had done the biggest dāna during the Buddha's time. But without Path Knowledge unstable. Must have the Path Knowledge or develop the acinna kamma. Remember these two points. Near dying family and business matters can come in. Without practice, when the time come for separation is not easy thing. Acinna kamma send you to happy rebirth or Nibbāna. Don't be lazy. At the time of dying have to put full energy to contemplate. Why can you put full energy for contemplation? Because of acinna kamma. Without it if you see hell vision will go there as what you have seen. Seeing animal vision will born as animal. A person who had developed the acinna kamma can change all these visions. By seeing hell fire he knows that he has to go there. He also heard about these things before. At that time he has to put full effort for contemplation.

By seeing anicca, disenchantment for anicca, the ending of anicca and then realize Nibbāna. There is nothing to be low spirited. Who had accinna kamma even can become an arahant at the near dying.(see Channovada Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya) Without this habitual kamma have to take rebirth accordingly to the visions. The Buddha explained the difference between prayer with chanting and vipassanā. Prayer with chanting is faith and refuge. Only leading to happy rebirths. Practice is leading to Nibbāna. Let do prayer with chanting to be lesser than practice. If you do a lot of practice, it becomes acinna kamma. Don't listen to talks just for merits. The Buddha preferred the practice to cut off all the wholesome, unwholesome and mixed kammas (black and white)(vipassanā kamma and magga kamma cut off all kammas). Practice and stopping can't become acinna kamma. Have to do a lot. Anicca and magga become simultaneously, you are succeeded. Asajit by practicing accordingly to the Buddha's questions and answered and became an arahant. Samādhi is only a support for the contemplation. Don't think as no samādhi is no perfection (parami). vipassanā is leading by wisdom factors. If you do vipassanā include samādhi. If you discern anicca including samādhi factors. During the practice also including sīla factors.

文章: 400
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Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw--Part 1-9

文章 Avuso » 2016-08-04, 23:49

[9] Nibbāna Is Near Not Far Away
( 15th December 1961)

The Buddha talked about Nibbāna without anyone asking. He wanted to dispel people's doubts. Atthi Bhikkhave Nibbānam-Monks! Nibbāna exists. It's sure that Nibbāna exists. To arrive Nibbāna is start from sankhata. From conditioned to unconditioned. Someone who wants to leave the conditioned will arrive there. Sankhata Damma, Asankhata Dhamma-Condition Dhamma, Unconditioned Dhamma (from the Dhammasangani). Nibbāna always exist as a natural phenomenon (Sabhava Dhamma). It's exist all the time and why the Buddha only appeared many can realize it.(Before the Buddha only Pacceka Buddhas realized it). He could only teach the way to be there. Couldn't make it happen. Nibbāna is unconditioned and exist as a natural phenomenon. It's existing in nature should be encounter by someone. According to the Buddha it's impossible. Why? It needs to be got on the right train. Only the one who takes the maggan train or who do the work of the path factors will arrive there. The train is called magga paccayo (Path Condition). There are trains from good rebirth to good rebirth (sugati to sugati), good rebirth to bad rebirth(sugati to dugati), and good rebirth to Nibbāna. Without the Buddha appeared all take the first and second trains in turn. Nobody can take the third one. Without the Buddha only Pacceka Buddhas were taking the right train. No one can write about Nibbāna. By drawing or showing Nibbāna, even can't show a fake one (Sayadaw referred to scholars and artists). It's without form, shape and images, so can't be deformed or inconstant. A place without deformity and inconstancy is the best place. All living being are living inside the province of conditions and never have the chance for living with safety.

Asking you to contemplate impermanence is wanting you to see the conditioned. Wanting you for disenchantment to conditioned. Wanting you to transcend or get out of conditioned. Wanting you to sharpen the knowledge which wanting to get out of conditions. Therefore asking you to contemplate everyday. Wanting to arrive Nibbāna have to follow to the end of sankhata. So I am asking U Than Maung (one of his disciples in the audience) as: Are you arriving to the end of inconstancy yet? At the ending of sankhata you will find it. It's close to the ending of sankhata. In the Saṁyutta the Buddha said: Nibbāna sandike - Nibbāna is not far away, very near. Therefore the Buddha taught to Rohitassa Devata to look for Nibbāna at 2-armed-lengths body (everyone's height is only 2-armed-lengths of his/her own hand). Contemplate this 2-armed-lengths body back and forth will see inconstancy and disenchantment of it. After that make a firm decision as it's truly dukkha sacca and then come to an end. It looks like you are watching a movie when it ended the white screen appear before you. Before it ending the screen was complicating with move pictures. Here also the movie sankhata ended and Nibbāna white screen appeared. The meaning is it's closing behind. If you are going by maggan train only short moment. I encourage you to make effort. khandhas disappear Nibbāna arrive here. It's near but far away because can't overcome the sankhata. Don't say overcome it even very few people see impermanence. Because of not seeing anicca so not arriving at nicca Nibbāna. If you say far away, people are retreating. Saying near they don't know how to look for it. Some heard from others said that Nibbāna was far away. And also don't know how to look for so they decide to develop perfection(paramis) slowly. It's not parami but to have magganga (path factors).

In Pesakopadesa(a commentary, also by the Buddha), it mentioned that listening to the Sacca Dhamma(talks on Noble Truths) and proper or wise attention, by practicing in this way penetrate the Truth of Dukkha and will realize Nibbāna. Not mentioning about the paramis. This maggan train can ride only by oneself and can't carry family members. Each person with one's own train. Therefore Path Knowledge can't share with others. (Not the same as merits) Paccatamveditabbovi&&uhī – each person enjoy the happiness or peace by oneself. Magga paccayo – Nibbāna is Path Condition, it came from the Patthāna (law of conditionality). In the whole samara (round of rebirth), we were taking the wrong train and suffered by it. Don't look for the culprit. People are talking as making money to feed your family is encouraging to ride the dugati train from the sugati (sugati – good or happy , dugati – bad or painful). Even may be you will think it as he is friendly to me. Some encourage to ride the sugati train for the betterment of next life. This is for your old age, sickness and death. If you ride the middle train (maggan), they will say you are still so young. Do you see the disadvantages make by your good friends? This is remind you for the future.

You want to follow the middle way because of the appreciation of Nibbāna. And want to follow it because of after dispelled uccheda ditthi. Ehi-passiko(come and see) is calling , sandhitiko (observing or contemplating) is following and Paccatamveditabbovi&&uhī – each person will realize the Path Knowledge. (Sayadaw very often using the 6-qualities of dhamma to explain the practice) Realization comes by practicing only, not by prayer or chanting. There are also following in the wrong ways(e.g. a mosquito bites and following with the hand). Following with craving, anger and delusion. Ehi is sense objects (arom) and Sandhitiko is contemplation (arammanika). If these two are harmonized you are on the right train. You are seeing the sankhata. Ignorance and craving (avijjā and tanha) covered on the knowledge (nyan). (This is one cover) Dukkha covers on Nibbāna (2nd cover). If you still don't see impermanence defilement cover on the knowledge, if you are still not in disenchantment with impermanence, and make a firm decision as Truth of Dukkha (Dukkha Sacca), then will not see Nibbāna. Therefore to Nibbāna have to go with practice. You can't have it for free. Kilesa and Dukkha cover up Nibbāna. If you can uncover these two will see it. (First uncover kilesas and see anicca, 2nd uncover Dukkha) The biggest enemy is defilement. Can't penetrate the Truth of Dukkha that Dukkha cover up again. If you still not seeing anicca not overcome defilement. Not seeing Nibbāna still not penetrate Dukkha yet. If you win kilesa, you will find dukkha. By penetration of dukkha and then Dukkhasa antam karasati ~ at the end of dukkha will realise Nibbāna.