鄔達摩尊者編譯 ~ 莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集

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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-10, 15:53

[10] Penetration of The Five Dhammas
5th to 9th Dec.1959

[Sayadaw delivered 5 talks on the 5-Dhammas; the taints (āsavas), action (kamma), suffering (dukkha), sensuality(kama) and feeling(vedanā) respectively. It based on a sutta in the Anguttara-Nikāya which mentioned totally 6-Dhammas, including perception (sañña). But Sayadaw didnot include it in his talks.]

T1 [The Buddha said to the monks, the reason living beings were wandering in the round of existence because of not knowing the Dhammas which should be penetrated. According to the sutta the 6-Dhamma are: sensuality, feeling, perception, taint, action and suffering. Each one of them has 6 points to know. On the taints(āsavas): 1. To know āsavas - The taint of sensuality(kamāsava), the taint of becoming (bhavāsava), the taint of view(ditthāsava) and the taint of ignorance(avijjāsava). The first 3 of them are liked the followers and ignorance is liked a leader. In the sutta the Buddha mentioned 3 only without the view. 2. To know the cause - ignorance is the leader and the other are functioning accordingly to its order. 3. To know the diversity - living beings take rebirth in the 31-realms of existence. 4. To know the result - kamma. 5. To know the cessation - to destroy avijjāsava, i.e ignorance ceases the taints cease. 6. To know the path of practice for cessation - the Noble Eight Fold Paths.]

In the early morning after wake up ignorance comes in. With the order of ignorance and all the other taints follow to act for the whole day. Every day of experience is the functions of the 4 taints. Without mindfulness we suffer by them. With mindfulness it becomes the contemplation on Dhamma (Dhammannupassana). Every time they come and with sati contemplate its impermanence. I will talk on the 3rd point which is the result. There are many types of taints giving the results to hell, animals, hungry ghosts, human beings, celestial beings and Brahma gods. Most people think taints usually lead to the planes of misery (apayanumi).

T2 On kamma: Before talking on kamma, I want to talk about wrong view on kamma (kammavadi sasataditthi- i.e, viewing kamma as permanent). It's very important. Most Buddhists say that before we are arriving at Nibbāna we have to rely on kammas. Why is that? Because it was mentioned in some of the discourses. Most Buddhists also think in this way. Kamma follows behind like an ox-cart and shadow were taught accordingly to the suttanta method. If you take it as a reality and becomes wrong view of sternalism. It means as without changing. Kamma is volition and mental phenomenon. Making into aggregate; it's mental aggregate(sankhārakhandha). In the Discourse of Not-Self Characteristic (Anatta Lakkhana Sutta), it mentioned as sankhāra anatta – volitional formations are not-self. Therefore, it also has the nature of impermanence. If following liked a shadow, mean it's not changing. Then, it's not anatta(not-self), becomes self (atta – this is viewing kamma with wrong view.). Infer something indirectly to make it clear and take it meaning directly become wrong view. Regarding with the result of kamma, some kammas become fruitless and some are not. If not arriving to Nibbāna yet, then it's not fruitless yet. Kammic result can't follow directly, but you must take it as giving the same result. The action finished at the place where it had done. But it gives the same result at another place. If you take it as not following behind, then the view of eternalism is falling away. And take it as the same result arises, then the view of annihilationism also falls apart [(The last 2 sentences are important to dispel wrong views on kamma as permanence (sasata) and annihilation (uccheda). The wrong view on kamma comes from the Mahā Punnama Sutta of Majjhima- Nikāya which Sayadaw mentioned here.)] He gave a very simple example to clear up the mistaken view. There are 2 candle sticks. In the first candle stick has light, and the second does not. You take the first candle light and lights it to the 2nd one. And then light arises in the 2nd one. Does it mean the 1st light is following it to the 2nd one? No, it doesn't. If it's really following there, the light of the first one will be gone out. Is the 2nd light nothing to do with the 1st light (i.e no connection)? No, it has connection, the same thing is arising. If it's really following behind, the cause & effect become one or the same. They are not the same. Kamma is the cause and vipākka is the result. They are not the same nor different (but only cause & effect relationship). This point is very important. Practicing with wrong view will not realize the Dhamma.

You have to know kamma in 6 points. These are:(1) To know the type of kamma. (2) To know the cause of kamma. (3) To know the diversity of kamma. (4) To know the result of kamma. (5) To know the cessation of kamma. (6) To know the way of cessation of kamma.
(1) There are 3 types of kamma; i.e bodily, verbal and mental action.
(2) What is the cause of kamma? It arises by contact (phassa). As an example, if you don't see the foods, the desire to eat doesn't come. You see the foods and the desire to eat arise. The 3kammas arise because of contact.
(3) There’re many diversities of kammas leading beings to hells, animals, hungry ghosts, human beings, celestial beings and Brahma gods.
(4) The result of kamma are:(a) The result will get in this life within 7 days, 7 months and 7 years. (b)The result will get in next life. (c)The result will get until before Nibbāna to the last life (until the last existence as an arahant, e-g Mahā-Moggallāna).
(5) Nibbāna is the place where kamma cease to arise. When the 8-Path factors arise it ceases. Kamma ceases and dukkha ceases (Here contact-phassa cease and kamma cease).
(6) Practice the Noble Eight Fold Path kamma will cease.

Every time volitional mental state arises contemplate impermanence, then craving not arise. Whenever mind/body exist and volition (kamma) exists. Volition cease and mind/body cease. Physical kamma with mind/body, verbal kamma with mind/body and mental kamma with mind/body; they are arising together respectively (sahajata paccaya - conascence condition). You don't need to have doubt as if volition ceases, mind/body cease or not? If you don't contemplate because of volition, and must get the mind and body. If you get mind and body, then old age, sickness and death will follow as the truth of dukkha. Kamma is creating round of existence of action (kammavatta) and the result of round of existence (vipākkavatta). With the vipākkavatta has the defilement of round of existence(kilesavatta). Not contemplate the volition with insight knowledge the 3 rounds of existence continue in cycle. Open the eyes and close the eyes are kammas (Want to open and close, these are volitions.). But in the contemplation no need to contemplate only volitions. By contemplation on mind, feeling and dhamma, all include with volition. No need to make a selection.

T3 On dukkha: The 6 points of dukkha are: (1) To know dukkha (Sayadaw used dukkha which was mentioned in The First Discourse Of The Buddha). Birth is dukkha (jatipi dukkha). Look at back this dukkha you had before. Do you know it? No, you don't. It's ignorance. Old age is dukkha. Do you know you are burning with this heat element? Again you don't know it. This is the power of ignorance. Do you know sickness? You know, even animals know it. But you don't know the illness which always need for adjustment as dukkha (i.e bodily dukkha or discomfort, as e-g hungry and thirsty so we have to eat and drint etc. These are sankhāra dukkha and there are more than that. There are a lot of things to do for the whole day. It's very important for contemplation to this kind of dukkha and have dispassion for the khandhas) Therefore dukkha is difficult to know. By only understanding dukkha and it will end. Death is dukkha (marāṇaṃ dukkha). Do you know it? You don't know it yet, because you are still alive. You can die at anytime but every day you can laugh and smile, means you don't know it. There are many dukkhas and covering up by ignorance that we don't know it. These are sorrow, lamentation pain and grief and despair etc. All these we have seen every day. Do we know them as dukkha? No, we don't, and we think it as normal. Therefore, there is a saying, the truth of dukkha is not easy to know. The last dukkha is clinging to the 5-khandhas. This only can be known by insight knowledge. This dukkha always exists. Not everybody knows it. So it's covering up by ignorance. By penetration of dukkha and the origin of dukkha, i.e samudaya dies. Therefore, the truth of dukkha is difficult to know. In all the truth it's the most difficult to know. If you know it will realize the ending of dukkha. The 5-khandhas are dukkha phenomena. It only ceases by thorough penetration so I have to warn you on this point very often. In reality it's important to know the ever changing dukkha of the healthy body (not the physical pain). Only the progressive yogi can know it. The kind of dukkha even can know by dog and pig, not realize Nibbāna. Rootless (ahetuka) and 2-rooted (dvehetuka) person can't know it. Only 3-rooted person (Tihetuka) can know it. Even tihetuka person can know it by discerning the highest level of impermanence and not by the lower level. There are 2 dukkhas. Dukkha can be treated by medicine and the one cannot. Only by seeing the dukkha which can't be cured by medicine will realize Nibbāna. It has no time for treatment. Dukkha can't be cured by medicine is the real dukkha. (2) To know the cause of dukkha: It causes by lobha samudaya(greed). (3) To know the diversity of dukkha: Have to know 4-types; small dukkha, big dukkha, slow dukkha & fast dukkha. Add another two; can be cured and cannot be cured by medicine. In the body only has these 6-types of dukkha. (Sayadaw did not explain them but we can know it by contemplation). (4) To know the result of dukkha: For the worldling (phutthujana) follow by sorrow, lamentation, grief and despair. Tihetuka person seeing impermanent dukkha extinguishes sorrow, lamentation ..etc. will realize Nibbāna and ending dukkha.(6) To know the way: It's the Noble Eight Fold Path. A person develops the path factors will end dukkha and not by prayers. In the 6 points of dukkha connect the 1st and the 6th. After understanding about dukkha and develop with the path factors (contemplate the 5-khandhas with the path factors).

T4 On sensuality (kama): In the beginning, Sayadaw talked about the practice of Ven. Anuruddha who had conceit (māna), over effort (viriya) and worry were intruding in his practice. Later corrected by Ven. Sāriputta and became an arahant. Sayadaw reminds his disciples to be careful in their practice and have equanimity in all situations.

Conceit (māna) is greed (lobha). (Told the story of Anuruddha) Māna, over viriya and worry were intruding in his practice, that without development. He had success in samatha practice but not in the practice of insight. So the 3-hindrances for the realization of Path and Fruit are māna, restlessness (uddhacca) and worry. Hinder for the lower level of knowledge to higher level of knowledge. If you don't have the realization, one of them is hindering of it. During the practice whatever arising observe with right attitude. Don't let the worry why I don't have it yet come in. If you ask how to do it? Just observe in accordance with the Dhamma (Dhammanu - dhammappatti). Just contemplate as it is. Before it shows its nature and observes from behind. Don't let other phenomena come in and mix-up with it. Regarding to viriya, in the 4-supreme efforts, there nothing is excessive and only equilibrium. Just observe what the Dhamma shows you and it will not take long and realize it.

(1) To know sensuality (2) To know the cause (3) To know the diversity (4) To know the result (5) To know the cessation (6) To know the way of practice.
(1) Kama means the nature of desire, wanting, affection. I am an affectionate person is a sweet word but hinder the knowledge.
(2) Contact (phassa) is the cause of sensuality. As example, affection between each other is only after contact. Do you have any affection to your past lives family members? No affection come, because no contact with them.
(3) The diversity of kama are: These are the 5-desires for the form, sound, smell, taste and touch.
(4) The result is: Because of greed (lobha) living beings create many kammas.
(5) The cessation of kama: The cessation of the 5-cords of kama (No.3) is Nibbāna.
(6) The way of practice: The Noble Eight Fold Path.
There are two kamas; the object of sensuality (vutthu kama) and defilements of sensuality (kilesa kama). These are the 5-khandhas and the mind attach to them. Kilesa kama is sticking to the objects of kama. For insight contemplate the vutthu kama. You can contemplate any one of the 5-khandhas. You can't realize Nibbāna because can't separate the two kamas. Can't separate because you have something of attach to. So contemplate the impermanent nature of vutthu kama and the desire for clinging not come in. Instead it becomes the object of insight. Not become the object of affection. Have to know where the object of kama come from? Take the object as permanence and it becomes sensuality. If the object of kama falls apart then kilesa kama falls off. You must clear about this point. By discerning impermanence and it falls away. You can contemplate anything and it will fall away. If it's falling away and not exists for clinging that kilesa kama falls off. So anicca leads to Nibbāna is clear. (Sayadaw gave an example as the cause of permanent sign - namitta created the defilement of sensuality with the story of Rahula.) He went for alms round with the Buddha. Looking at the Buddha's form and his own had developed the permanent sign and became conceited. The Buddha knew his mind and asked him to contemplate impermanence.

T5 On feeling: The Buddha had arisen in this world or not is depending on the knowledge of each person. If you discern anicca, dukkha and anatta in the khandhas then the Buddha had arisen, and if you don't see it then it's not. You become Mr. and Mrs. Emptiness or Zero, or a person without values. The 3-universal characteristics always exist without the Buddha appeared in this world or not. With the Buddha had arisen, we have the chance to know it. (mentioned in the Anguttara-Nikāya) With the practice and discerning anicca, you should have gladness about that which will end your dukkha in this life. If you discern anicca it becomes Sandiṭṭhko=visible here and now which is one of the qualities of dhamma (there are 6-attributes of Dhamma). If you put more effort and will see Nibbāna at the ending of impermanence which is akaliko=non-temporal. You may want to ask me. I have discerned anicca but not arrive at the ending yet. It means the discernment is not mature yet. Sandiṭṭhko is not mature yet. Svakhato - the Dhamma is well expounded by the Awakened One, sandiṭṭhko - it's visible here and now, akaliko - non-temporal; these 3-attributes of the Dhamma are similar to learning (pariyatti or ñatta pariñña, practice (patipatti or tirana pariñña) and the fruit or result (pativedha or pahana pariñña). How do we know the ending of anicca when the discerning knowledge become mature? The arising phenomenon is dukkha and the passing away is also dukkha. Except only dukkha nothing exists. If you can make this decision the anicca will end. At the ending Nibbāna appears.
(1) To know about feelings: Feeling has 3-kinds; pleasant, unpleasant and neutral feeling.
(2) To know the cause of feeling: it's contact (phassa).
(3) To know the diversity of feeling: 3-kinds connection with sensuality and 3-kinds connection with practice. (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral with kama and pleasant, unpleasant and neutral with meditation), so totally 6-feelings.
(4) To know the result of feeling: Because of feeling creates wholesome and unwholesome kammas.
(5) To know the cessation of feeling: The ending of feeling is Nibbāna.
(6) To know the way: The Noble Eight Fold Path.

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文章: 459
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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-10, 15:55

[11] Follow Behind With Knowing
1st Jan. 1960

Only wrong view fall away will realize Nibbāna. Only by realizing Nibbāna, wrong view will cut off. Without the intellectual knowledge before-hand, the practice is hindering by wrong view inside and can't realize the Dhamma. Remember this point carefully. Wrong view and Nibbāna have connection. Ven. Yamaka had self view and annihilation view (atta and uccheda ditthi) so he couldn't realize the Dhamma even though he had practiced. Ven. Channa had atta ditthi and view of permanence. Both of them after cleansing up their wrong views that realized the Dhamma. By understanding the dependant arising of the khandha, and wrong views fall away. As an example, with the contact of the sound and ear-base that the 4-mind khandhas arise. Sound and ear, contact are the cause (paticca-samupadā) and the 4-mind khandhas are the result (paticca- samupana). The 4-mind dhammas hear the sound. Not I hear or he hears. It's only the arising of the hearing dhamma. Then identity view or self view fall away. Don't be afraid of lobha-tanhā(greed-craving), be afraid of the ignorance or unknowing. Most people are afraid of lobha and not the unknowing of impermanence (i.e ignorance). If lobha comes, contemplate impermanence. If you don't, it will connect with action (kamma bhāva; see the 12-links of dependent arising). The Buddha taught in the satipatthāna; if lobha comes contemplate lobha, if dosa comes contemplate dosa etc. Therefore, don't be afraid of defilements arise but be afraid of without contemplation. Lobha by itself can't give the result. If lobha arises and you contemplate it, then no clinging and action come to be. If you don't contemplate, they will come. Dependent arising is not for reciting but for cutting defilements. So whatever mind arises just know it. With the knowing will arrive to Nibbāna. You don't arrive there because you don't know it. Whatever dhamma it may be after arising has to disappear. If you know the arising and you know the passing away. Anicca and Magga (dukkha sacca and magga sacca), samudaya dies (samuudaya sacca) and dukkha ceases (nirodha sacca) (craving not arises and new khandhas cease); the Four Noble Truths are working together. You have to develop it with contemplation.

Developing means knowing it again and again. Every time you know the mind arises, you are a wise person. Every time if you know the mind arising and will know the passing away. Then you are looking after your mind. By looking after your mind safety is leading towards Nibbāna. (From citta vagga, Dhammapada) Why the Buddha asked you to look after your mind? Because they are thieves. They are the 3-thieves of craving, conceit and wrong view (tanhā, māna and ditthi). They are coming in and stealing the impermanent dhammas. Therefore, you don't see it. Don't let them be this is mine, this I am and this is myself. Let them be impermanence. Don't be afraid of your mind, be afraid of the 3-thieves. Every time mind arises know the impermanence. The arising dhamma is the truth of dukkha. Knowing is the truth of the path. Craving not arise is the ceasing of samudaya (the truth of the cause). No khandhas follow is the truth of cessation (Nirodha Sacca).

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文章: 459
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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-10, 15:57

[12] Practice On The Body, Feeling And Mind
3rd to 4th Jan. 1960

Condensing the 5-khandhas become mind and body. They are unstable and have the characteristic of deteriorating nature (viparināma lakkhanam) and the truth of dukkha (dukkha sacca) or viparināma lakkhanam dukkha saccam. This is still not your own experience yet. It's true or not, check it directly. (This is a very important point on faith in Buddhism.) You will find out that after arising and it's disappearing. Then it's unstable and deteriorating (viparināma). It's the truth of dukkha and does not bring happiness but only to suffering. It lets it nomal nature to deteriorate and die. Therefore, it's suffering. You see your own suffering. If you contemplate literally on the attributes of the Dhamma and it becomes samatha practice, but use it as an insight practice. Sanditthiko - visible here and now, contemplate to see impermanence by yourself. Only impermanence exists so you discern anicca. By discerning anicca not continue to craving, clinging and action (tanhā, upādānam and kamma). This is akāliko (non-temporal or timeless). With these 2-Dhamma Attributes (qualities) you can realize Nibbāna. Why is that? Because it's not leading to the continuation of khandhas. Without continuation birth, old and death is stop coming. It's Nibbāna. Only become sanditthiko you will see Nibbāna. In contemplation you are seeing feeling and knowing anicca. I want to make some corrections in insight practice. Most people think watching and contemplating means: give an example, a crane is watching at the outlet of a drainage farm for catching the fishes. It's not in this way. Whatever is arising and following behind with knowledge. Here watching is mindful attention and follow with pañña(sati/pañña). Whatever dhamma shows you, observe with knowledge. (Here Sayadaw compared watching and observing with the example of a crane and a fish are simple but have some hidden meanings. Find out by contemplation. What are the differences between them.) Insight practice is cutting off the continuation of the khandhas by oneself. In vipassanā practice don't look at the bodily form. Observe the mind. Before, people were using the body for teaching. Using the 32-parts of the body and dividing them into group and the 4-elements etc. (This is one of the common practice in the Thai Forest Tradition.) It takes longer time. Human life span is short. So the best way is contemplating one's mind. For an example, the mind wants to eat something arises and then observe it as there is or not? You will find it as not there. Not existing there is anicca and the knowing is magga. You get the insight knowledge. Every state of mind arises make effort to know it as not there, not there. This is you are observing your own death. The later Mr. Smith observes the death of previous Mr. Smith.

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文章: 459
註冊時間: 2004-09-19, 08:00

鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-10, 16:02

[13] The Dhamma To Nibbāna
6th Jan.1960

(This talk was based on a sutta in satipatthāna Samyutta.) Ven. Uttiya asked the Buddha; " Please tell me the beginning to Nibbāna. If I know this will be arrived to the end.” This is important. There can be also mistake in the beginning." The Buddha answered that if your precepts are clean and have right view, these are the beginning to Nibbāna. Right view is sammā-ditthi. Therefore, sīla and paññā are the beginning to Nibbāna. Uttiya followed the Buddha's instruction and looked after the precepts and made his view right. And then practiced satipatthāna and became an arahant. (There was also a monk named Ven. Bahiya not the Daruciriya, followed the same instruction from the Buddha also became an arahant.) For purify the sīla, undertaking of the precepts is enough (for lay community). Right view is to become sammā-ditthi. Listening dhamma talks and have wise reflection (yonisomānasikāra). Dhamma talks are not ordinary ones, but vipassanā dhamma, i.e sacca dhamma. Dāna, sīla, samatha dhammas are not connection with the contemplation of anicca, dukkha and anatta. Right attention means dhamma shows anicca and know anicca, shows dukkha and know dukkha, and shows anatta and know anatta. Listen talks also important. By listening the Christian teachings can become a Christian. Going wrong in the beginning will not realize Nibbāna.

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文章: 459
註冊時間: 2004-09-19, 08:00

鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-10, 16:16

[14] Khemaka and The Sixty Monks
31st Dec. 1957 & 25th-26th Jan. 1960

T1 Ven. Khemaka was praised by the Buddha as an excellent preacher. Sixty monks stayed at Kosambi and Khemaka at the Plum Forest. Khemaka was very sick and the monks sent the youngest monk Dāsaka to ask his health. Actually they wanted to listen his talk. First time he answered that he's not well and vedanā were increasing. After Dāsaka went back and repeated the news to the others. They asked him to go back and asked Khemaka that did he take the 5-khandhas as me or mine (wrong view and craving). Khemaka answered that he did not take each of the khandhas as me or mine, but the whole as I am (conceit). Here Sayadaw added some instructions for practice to dispel the sense of I or mine. The body is conditioned by kamma, citta, utu (temparature) and ahara (food), so it belongs to others. The mind and mental factors arise because of sense-objects and sense-doors (arom and drava), so it also belongs to others. Then observe their anicca nature. Dāsaka went back and repeated what Khemaka had said and they listened and contemplated their bodies.

The 3rd time they sent Dāsaka back and asked him the question that if he didn't take the khandhas as me or mine, then did he was an arahant. Khemaka answered that he was not an arahant but the khandhas still existed and took it as I am (māna). This point showed him as a non-returner (anāgāmin). Dāsaka went back and repeated what Khemaka had said. After their contemplation they sent him back to ask Khemaka " Does he take each khandhas as I am?" So Dāsaka went back for the 4th time. After hearing the question, he himself with Dāsaka went to Kosambi to see the monks. He did not take each khandha as me or mine, but took the whole khandhas as I or mine in speech only. He was already an anāgāmin.

Here Sayadaw mentioned a very important point for yogis. He said wrong view comes from composite and to dispel it, have to see them separately. He suggested yogis to choose one khandha for insight, e-g vedanā vipassanā. Khemaka gave the simile of a lotus flower to explain the concept of I am (conceit) [Here Sayadaw minght be used it from the commentary. It did not mention in the main Pali Sutta.] He said the lotus smell came from the whole flower, not from each of the several parts. In the same way defilement arise from the composite nature of the 5-khandhas or concept. To clean away the kilesas yogi should contemplate each khandha as anicca. The clothes after washed have the smell of soap. To dispel the smell, have to put them into a perfume box until the smell is gone away. So sekha - the learner (the lower ariyans) are liked washed clothes. Arahant likes the washed clothes with perfume smell. During the whole time Khemaka instructed them, they were listening and observing their khandhas. So Khemaka himself and all the others became arahants. (This point is interesting. There are two factors for contemplation. Listening dhamma talks and contemplation at the same time can lead to realization. We can't take watching things and listening things as insignificance. These are also educations. Nowadays mass medias have a lot of polluted or poisonous things which lead people to immoral standards in mind, speech and action. Moral values and standards are the foundation of all goodness.) In this talk Sayadaw gave an important point that how to decide oneself as 3-rooted person (tihetuka) or 2-rooted person. If someone observes one's body and discerns anicca, he is 3-rooted and is not 2-rooted. More sure way is in the beginning seeing impermanence sparsely; continue with the practice, and develops into inner light or one of the 10-insight corruptions. If can develop into this stage the yogi is sure he is tihetuka and continue diligently with the practice will end dukkha. (There are 10 insight corruptions: light, knowledge, rapture, tranquility, happiness, faith, exertion, mindfulness, equanimity and attachment. The yogi can take any one of the experiences as Path Knowledge and stop practicing.)

T2 Khemaka answered that his illness was increasing. He used the I or mine as a normal usage. He did not have the wrong view of I but still had the conceited I am. In the 2nd time of answer he did not had I or mine regarded with the 5-khandhas (atta and attaniya – self and belong to self). It doesn't matter we can use my son, my daughter and my belongings. But don't think it as a reality. Sotāpanna knows by himself that the 5-khanhdas are not me and not mine but only exist as mind & body phenomena and impermanence of the truth of dukkha. This is sotāpanna knowledge. He just uses the me or mine only in speech and does not think it as a reality. The use of I in speech is not the main concern, only the view of taking it as a reality. I will talk about the way to dispel me or mine views. There are two views of I, the wrong view of I and conceit of I am. The great benefit of the falling away of ditthi I was mentioned in the Mahā Vagga Samyutta. There was a pond which had the length, width and depth of 50-yojanas each respectively. (1 yojana=8 or 13 miles) Full of water in it. With the tip of a blade of kusa grass draws out some water from it for 7 times and shakes it out. Seven drops of water will fall out. Compare these 7drops of water and the volume of water in the great pond. You will find the enormous differences. After becoming a sotāpanna the suffering he will still has to encounter is only 7 drops of water. If not the suffering waiting ahead for everyone is unspeakable. Any unwholesome dhamma is coming from the wrong view of me or mine. Such kind of speech as; what you think I am? Don't touch my belongings etc.

All the wrong views even the Buddha could not help to save some beings were coming from sakkāya ditthi – identity view (e.g his cousin Devadatta, Saccaka etc.). This is my self , this is mine are perversions of view. These are not only wrong views also perversions. So we must have right view. The views are becoming strong because of clinging to views. If continue to create kamma leading to the planes of misery. (Here Sayadaw gave many examples of painful rebirths of sentient beings. In animal kingdoms there are many uncountable varities of them. All base on ditthi. Human beings take every part of their bodies and identify with it, even every single of hairs. Not only know the 5-khandhas as this is not myself and this is not mine, but also contemplate to see impermanence. By discerning anicca leading to emptiness (suññatā). From impermanence of suññatā leading towards suññatā Nibbāna. Contemplate anyone of the khandhas by seeing impermanence and you arrive to suññatā.

Dāsaka went back to the monks and they practiced in accordance with Khemaka's instruction. Contemplate the 5-khandhas as this is not mine, this is not myself and entered the stream. For the 3rd time they sent back Dāsaka to ask Khemaka that if he took his khandhas as this was not mine and not my-self, so was he an arahant? Khemaka answered that he still took the mind & body as I am but not as me. Here had two points and important. The wrong view I was fallen away, but the conceit I am was still exist. To cut off wrong view and contemplate to see impermanence. It's not like a light bulb after it gone out become darkness. You have to see it as after arises it's not there. (What are these two differences. The 1st one is light substitute with darkness. The 2nd discerns the emptiness of the phenomena.) In this way ditthi falls away.

T3 All the arising dhammas are anicca. The Buddha said that sabbe sankhāra anicca - all the conditioned phenomena are impermanent. Observe with knowledge and seeing that it's not there. The arising dhamma not these anymore is its characteristic - lakkhana. Combine together anicca - lakkhana - characteristic of impermanence. Knowing is knowledge - nyan. Combine together - anicca lakkhana nyan - the knowledge of the characteristic of impermanence. Whatever dhamma arises, knowing the arising as without a person or a being is free from wrong view, and then by contemplation and discern the characteristic of not there anymore. This is also free from wrong view. Therefore, when you are discerning of the characteristic of impermanence and become right view. In the same way the other two characteristic of dukkha and anatta have to be understood. Sabbe sankhāra dukkha - All conditioned things are suffering. Sabbe dhamma anatta - All dhamma (including Nibbāna) are not-self. So whatever arises dukkha and anatta. Direct seeing of them is nyan. Combing together - dukkha lakkhana, antta lakkhana and dukkha lakkhana nyan, anatta lakkhana nyan. (Anicca exists that it can show anicca. Therefore, I have to say whatever arising is anicca, dukkha and anatta. The Buddha also mentioned it. If their nature doesn’t exist thses characteristic and can’t show anicca lakkhana, dukkha lakkhana and anotta lakkhana respectively.) If you don't know the illness you don't know a cure. In the contemplation, befor is anicca lakkhana and after knowing is right view. If you know continuously in this way, kilesas can't arise. Yogi does not contemplate, defilement arises between anicca and lakkhana. If craving, conceit and wrong view arise, continue to clinging, action and lead to suffering. Everyday we deposited a lot of kammas. It's good to ask that kamma is impermanent so it becomes fruitless? No, it's not fruitless. Craving and clinging (tanhā, upādānam) are keeping it with them. If tanhā never ceases, then kamma never ceases. Tanhā releases kamma one by one after it has finished. Therefore, the Buddha referred to tanhā as a tailor. It's like a tailor continuously connecting pieces of clothe together. When right view can come in between the arising dhamma, then tanhā and upādānam cease and kamma also ceases. Even though kamma are arising and passing away by themselves, tanhā and upādānam deposited all the kammic energy (power) with them. After killing them the deposited energy become fruitless. As an example the merits of the Bodhisatta became inoperative after his enlightenment and passed away. Therefore, tanhā is the root cause of all the wholesome and unwholesome dhammas. After destroyed the root the tree died. After it died and can't bear flowers and fruits, then no more trees grew out again. So every time khandha arises and with right view comes in, ditthi and tanhā die away. If all wrong views die, and then become a stream enterer. If all tanhā die, and then become an arahant.

The 4th time the monks sent Dāsaka to ask Khemaka. But Khemaka went with Dāsaka to their place for instruction. They asked him, "Do you take 5-khandhas as I am or each of them as I am?" I don't take each one of them as I am but to the whole khandhas. An example is in a lotus flower does the smell comes from the petals or the pollen etc.? In reality it can be say the whole one. In the same way I don't take each one of the khandhas as I am but the whole as I am. If you want to cut off the conceit, then contemplate the impermanence of the mind & body again. To give an example for conceit is after the clothes are washed clean, it still has the smell of the soap. Put them into a perfume box to take off the smell.

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文章: 459
註冊時間: 2004-09-19, 08:00

鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-17, 16:52

[15] Susima The Wanderer
28th to 31st, Jan.1960

T1 (Sayadaw said, without developing the samatha practice separately can realize Nibbāna. He pointed out a commentary by Ven. Anurudhha-Namarupaparicheda Text. It was said that the light of the dawn was showing the sign of the sun would be come out very soon. Insight knowledge (vipassanā nyan) was liked the dawn period and the Path Knowledge was liked the sun comes out.) Vipassanā knowledge has the 5-factors of the path (5-magganga). (1)Right view (Sammā-ditthi ) (2)Right thought (Sammā-sankappa). These are wisdom factors. (3)Right mindfulness (Sammā-sati) (4)Right effort (Sammā-vāyāma) (5)Right concentration (Sammā-samādhi). These are samādhi factors. Because when you are discerning anicca these 5-factors are functioning together. Without these factors you can't discern anicca. Therefore, without even developing samatha practice separately and with confidence start with impermanence in the way of practice here. I'll also give you the story of evidence from the sutta. In this process of the practice wisdom is the leader and samādhi is the follower. Now is the age of short life span that don't develop samādhi separately. If you discern anicca quickly it will end quickly. But you can't get the psychic power. After become an arahant if you want to follow samatha practice even more easier. (Sayadaw did not mean have to follow it. For an arahant does no interest in it.)

If your mind is restless, first using ānāpānasati - mindfulness of breathing develop some calmness. After that contemplate whatever feeling arises. (In this talk, Sayadaw used the contemplation of feeling explaining the practice.) The arising of feeling is the arising of paticca-samupadā. And the passing away of the feeling is the cessation of paticca-samupadā. Khandhand arises and khandhan ceases. It's about knowing the nature of one's khandhas. The arising is sankhāra (conditioned phenomenon) and the passing away is anicca (impermanence). Only sankhāra and anicca exist. Therefore, it's the same as to the saying of Sabbe sankhāra anicca - All conditioned phenomena are impermanent. If you do not contemplate and when all the feelings are arising, then each pleasant, unpleasant and neutral feeling will connect with greed, anger and delusion. By seeing the passing away of the arising dhamma not create new dependent arising process. Seeing the old pasing away does not create a new one. In this way not receive new dukkha. You can say dukkha ceases. Dukkha ceased is Nibbāna. Seeing the old one arose and ceased could be said knowledge came in. Insight knowledge comes in to cut off samudaya (here tanhā, upādānam and kamma) and dukkha (jāti, jara and marāna). This is cutting off samudaya sacca and dhkkha sacca. Cut off the next khandhas. The cause and result are cutting off. The cutting off dukkha and samudaya is the practice of vipassanā. This can't be achieved by prayers and only by practice. This is a very sure practice. Start doing it and will be finished. Some say Nibbāna is far away. Some say it's near. The one who says near without any insight knowledge is blindly near. The one who says far away without any knowledge himself can't do anything for him.

If you can separate the two khandhas and it's near. For example, after the feeling khandha, and will come the tanhā khandha. After tanhā, continues to upādānam, kamma khandha etc. We must know that we are alive by connecting khandhas. If you can't contemplate the before khandhas will get the later khandhas. (Here is an interesting point to contemplate. Our present life khandhas are continuously arising because of the past kammas which are releasing by tanhā which kept the kammic energy with them. By practice we kill the latent tanhā and at the same time tanhā does not arise and no new khandhas arise in the future.) Therefore, vipassanā is the function of stopping the next khandhas arising. Without the next khandhas arise, then the two truths of round of existence have ceased to exist (vatta sacca, i-e samudaya and dukkha or kilesa vatta and vipāka vatta). Therefore, vipassanā practice is the working of liberation from the round of existence. Without samādhi the mind can't know straight away towards impermanence. If you know it, then samatha and vipassanā are working together. The merit without the round of existence (vivatta kusala) is refering to vipassanā practice. Even making generosity (dāna) need to support by vipassanā. By developing insight is knowing one's own importance of cutting off the dependent arising process. A knowledgeable person should firstly store away his own WOK (Here Sayadaw refered to one's own Hell Wok created by unwholesome kammas.)(In this talk also said about dukkha with having and sukha without having are good for contemplation to understand the four meaning of dukkha and the peace of Nibbāna. This talk had a lot of profound Dhamma need for contemplation.)

T2 If you discern anicca, samatha and vipassanā are together. There are three ways for vipassanā practice: based on samatha practice, based on vipassanā practice and based on samatha/vipassanā together. (Here Sayadaw explained it as Yugananda way.) With khanika samādhi (momentary calmness) develop insight. With ānāpānasati develop calmness and contemplate impermanence. The Buddha gave instruction to Susima the wanderer. First contemplate impermanence, after that come the ending of impermanence which is the Path Knowledge. He said only that much, do not include samatha practice. Susima dissatisfied with the Buddha's answer. He said that he did not understand it. The reason today I use this Susima's story is to support my teaching here. So I tell you to practice with full confidence without any doubt about it. If you do it will find out what I have been said. The Buddha also supported about it. If you can't get the result, it's not the fault of the Dhamma. It is the fault of one's over grown defilements. This is the only conclusion to make. If the forest of kilesa is over grown can't do anything. You can't arrive to Nibbāna by samatha practice. This is the result of vipassanā practice.

T3 The duty for the Buddha's Teaching is the contemplation of impermanence of the mind & body process. Follow the Teaching of the Buddha without deviation. (Continued to talk about the qualities of a sotāpanna.) In the Buddha's time, there were dhammas on practical vipassanā practice. The Buddha himself instructed Susima on practical insight practice. Susima came from a group of wanderers who held wrong view. The Buddha helped him first to dispel his wrong view. In the Anguttara-Nikāya it mentioned that people held wrong view couldn't penetrate the 4-Noble Truths. The Buddha used the 5-handhas to teach him, because except the 5-khandhas there is nothing to talk about. He said many things to Susima. Here I will use only feelings(vedanā). By faculty (i.e indriya - eye, ear...mind faculty) there are 5-kinds of feeling. Pleasant feeling in the body (sukha vedanā), pleasant feleing in the mind (somānassa). unpleasant feeling in the body (dukkha vedanā), unpleasant feeling in the mind (domānassa) & neutral feeling (upekkhā). There is no period without any feeling, even during the sleep we are changing our bodies by turning around. Free from feeling is only in Nibbāna (So people don't like it.)(Sayadaw gave a simile of a fish to demonstrate how the different feeling is functioning.) A fish sees a hook with a bait (neutral feeling). And then swallows the bait (pleasant feeling). The fisherman pulls the hook back on the boat and beats the fish head with a stick and it dies (all these are dukkha vedanā). The fish dies because of the 3-feelings (Living beings are suffering because of these, especially human beings. You can contemplate all human problems and suffering from famaily life, society, country, politic, economic, culture, environmental problems etc connection with feelings.) In the Vedanā Samyutta, the Buddha said that if someone could contemplate all the feelings tanhā will not arise and leading to Nibbāna. If you ask,"Is it the ending of impermanence is Nibbāna?" Cool and peacefulness is Nibbāna, because all dukkhas are ceased. In the heart it is cool and peaceful. Knowing it is the Path Knowledge.

T4 Sayadaw mentioned the Susima's story. He said that the Buddha taught him by questions and answers, nothing to do with samatha practice. Actually every realization from sotāpanna to arahant always include vipassanā jhana or supermundane jhana. Therefore, they enjoy the fruition state in their lives. He explained the 5-magganga with simile. Discerning anicca is sammā-ditthi and sammā-sankappa. Here sammā-sankappa as a lense. Samādhi factors are helpers of wisdom factors. Sati, viriya, samādhi are liked 3 persons plucking a fruit on a tree. Sīla factors come only at the point of discerning the end of dukkha. It becomes a magga sīla. During the time of penetration of dukkha, the 3 sīla factors come in and dukkha end. Dukkha ceased is Nibbāna. The 8-factors completed is the Path Knowledge. After that comes Fruitions. Fruitions also see Nibbāna. After Fruitions ceased reviewing knowlede arises (Paccavekkhana Nyan). It also sees Nibbāna. Seeing Nibbāna 3 times in the whole process.

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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-17, 16:56

[16] Why Human Beings in Dangers?
30th Jan. to 1st Feb. 1961 & 24th Sep. to 26th Sep.1961

T1 [Before the Buddha appeared, Sakka, the king of Tavatimsa Heaven, asked some questions to some teachers, but nobody could answer him. Later he asked the Buddha, listened to the talk and observed his khandhas, and became a stream enterer. And then passed away instantly and reborn again as Sakka at the same spot. He asked the Buddha that beings wanted long life and healthiness, but they had dangers and illnesses. So what was the reason about these? The Buddha gave the answer that because of envy (issā) and stinginess or averice (macchariya). (Sayadaw said people have these negative mental states not only they have dangers and sickness but also lead to painful rebirths. ) Where these mental states come from? From love and hate. Where love and hate come from? From desire (chanda), which are 5 kinds: want to get, want to search, want to use, want to store and want to give. The last giving is nothing to do making merits (dāna) but to protect or secure one's own properties, as example bribery. Where is chanda come from? From thinking (vitakka); here refer to unwholesome thoughts, such as thoughts of sensual pleasure, ill-will and harmfulness. Where vitakka come from? From mental proliferations (papañca), connect with craving, conceit and wrong view (tanhā, māna, ditthi). And then Sakka asked the Buddha: “Is there any way to eradicate pāpanca?” To practise the contemplation of feeling.

This khandha is always going towards death. If you are going the wrong direction (miccha-maggan), deaths are never end. Only by right direction (sammā-maggan) will end deaths. Everyone at the time of death vithi citta arise (consciousness belonging to a cognitive process, here for taking rebirth.). These are not free from sense-objects. Before a being dies seeing black dogs, hell sign etc. for a new destination of rebirth. The dying person knows his way to rebirth. Tears run down from his face because "I had lived a bad life so I will have a painful rebirth". At that time everyone has remorse but too late for correction. All living being no one dies without seeing the objective signs. Now, if you are making preparation, it will be ready at the dying moment. How much kamma still left? Nobody knows it? (In this present life for continue to live.) It's possible even today or tomorrow for death. There are also through the intervention of destructive kamma (upacchedaka kamma) can die anytime. If you are still going on pulling the time will be a foolish person. (Sayadaw continued Sakka's story) Envy and averice are attracting dangers and evil things. They are mental states of dosa. In this life will have enemies and painful rebirths. It doesn't come during the meditation, but in daily life of actions or activities. So in our daily life with mindful attention contemplate them. At first, it's difficult to practice with mental states, but later you will get the habit of it.

T2 [Sayadaw talked about dying and rebirth at the beginning.] At the time of death should we have to cling anything or don't want anything to come into the mind? It's important don't want anything or the knowledge of not want anything to come in. Have to die with this knowledge, die with the knowledge of not wanting the khandhas. Prepare with practice before death. Have to discern the impermanence of anicca, dukkha, anatta, asubha, dukkha sacca. Of these 5 points at least discerning one of them, so near death the knowledge will come in. Before death comes, one had to realize the Path Knowledge. Even though you can't do it at least should have the insight knowledge. Near death by contemplation still have the chance for become sotāpanna to anāgāmin. By having habitual kamma (acinna kamma) near death becomes asanna kamma (near death kamma).

(Sayadaw explained the process of Sakka's questions.)
Feeling(vedanā) lead to -> mental proliferation(pāpanca) ->thinking(vitakka) ->desire(chanda) ->love and hate ->envy and avarice with stinginess (issā and macchariya) ->Dangers and sickness.
To overcome it practice the contemplation of feeling (It’s the source).

T3 I have to warn you all, because of your good kammas all of you are still alive. How long it's? I have to answer for you; it's until now. I will give you an example. A pond is full of water after raining. Because of the hot sun the water in the pond become less and less. But the fishes in the pond don't know that. The water little by little dry up the fishes are also closer to die. The water dries up means for the fishes to die. Do you know it? Here fishes are human beings and the water becomes less and less means their kammas are used up slowly. For older people their kammic water nearly dry up now. Is it the time for them looking for pleasure like the fishes or searching for the deathlessness? If the pond dries up the fishes must become the foods for eagles and hawks. Here eagles and hawks are referring to the 4 painful rebirths. I have to remind you 2 things. Some are near death because their kammic water becomes less, but concern for others who are still far away from death. They are still busy with family matters and business. So I remind you to make preparation for death now. Practice for the death of tanhā is looking for deathlessness.

(Retold the Sakka's story here) In this discourse the Buddha mentioned the types of feeling. (1) two pleasant mental feelings (somānassa vedanā) (2) two unpleasant mental feelings (domānassa vedanā) (3) two neutral mental feelings (upekkhā vadāna). Each type of these vedanā can be divided into wholesome and unwholesome (kusala and akusala).

(1)The wholesome pleasant mental feeling (kusala somānassa vedanā). The example of it is seeing anicca the mind develop joy and happiness. (2)Unwholesome pleasant mental feeling ( akusala somānassa vedanā) (3)Wholesome unpleasant metal feeling ( kusala domānassa vedanā). (4)Unwholesome unpleasant mental feeling ( akusala domānassa vedanā). Example of it is disappointed with one's own practice (no progress, the commentary gave the story of Mahasiva) (5)Wholesome neutral mental feeling ( kusala upekkhā vedanā). As an example is vipassanupekkha. (6) Unwholesome neutral mental feeling (akusala upekkhā vedanā).

T4 Sakka, the king of gods, asked questions and the Buddha answered. At the same time, he observed his khandhas and entered the stream. Before the Buddha arisen in the world he was the king of the gods. He was a thoughtful person and asked same questions to some teachers of the time, and nobody could answer for him. These questions were also could be answered only by someone who had realization of the Dhamma (especially the Buddha). Therefore, it's important to understand the khandhas. Because of not understanding it we are quite a long time in the round of existence until now. Instead we are always with craving and wrong view (tanhā/ditthi). Therefore, we are wandering in the round of existence with the dangers of old age, sickness and death. Now, you have the chance, so try hard in your practice.

Everyone has the desire of to be healthy and happy. But why human beings have a lot of sickness and short lives. Because of envy and avarice. Most people think it's the causes of foods, climate and other causes. Stay away from envy and avarice will be less sickness and have a long life. We have to count also the past and present lives as both causes. Envy is 'don't want to see or hear of other people goodness and happiness'. Macchariya is meanness. All these things come from the Sakka Panha Sutta (Dīgha-nikāya) and the vipassanā practice comes from other suttas. Issā is anger (dosa). Macchariya (displeasure) is also anger. If they come in, contemplate anicca. It's the contemplation of the mind - cittanupassanā. By contemplation black thing becomes white. Cutting off defilements means it's now arising and cutting it now. In this way we are free from sickness in this life and also free from suffering in next life. Don't be negligent. Every time they arise must contemplate. They will benefit you with impermanence. Not only free from sickness and short life, also cut off the dependent arising process. If you know how to use, it becomes medicine. If not, becomes poison.

Where is issā and macchariya come from? From love and hate. These dhamma are good for contemplation. Love and hate are lobha and dosa. If these are coming in and can contemplate it, the root cause of issā and macchariya are cuting off. So cittanupassanā (The contemplation of mind) is good. Delusion (moha) also cut off. It functions together with them (conascence sahajata). If you can contemplate every time lobha, dosa and moha come in and cutting off the dependent arising from the beginning, middle and the end (to understand this point see the 12-links of dependent arising). You have to look for or search for contemplation or contemplate when it's arising. "Ven. Sir. It's only arising."(Some people think vipassanā contemplation is looking for somethings to contemplate.) Where are love and hate come from? From desire (chanda). If you have doubt it's ignorance (avijjā). Without contemplation will become wrong view. If you contemplate, wrong view and doubt die away, and will becomea stream enterer (sotāpanna). Why we don't become sotāpanna? Because we don't contemplate whatever is arising. Without any doubt and can contemplate impermanence, sotāpanna is easy. Where is desire come from? From thinking.

T5 (In the beginning Sayadaw explained that in our past lives we were doing wholesome deeds and making prayers to meet the Buddha teachings and had the ears to understand it. Now, we are having these chances. If we don't practice, all these become fruitless.) The Buddha said that even how much perfection in the past we had fulfilled it and if we don't practice now in accordance with the Dhamma(Dhammanu-dhammapatipatti) will like a lotus bud can't open up. In the same way our lotus bud of knowledge can't open up and die out. (Sayadaw gave the example of layman Peya in the Kassapa Buddha's time) Without the Dhammanu-dhammapatipatti, it becomes fruitless. Also like a good meal without any salt in it. Work hard before death comes, and important to discern anicca. You only need to fulfill that one. Also like a lottery number. Only miss a number, you are loss the chance to win. The latent defilement is always waiting for you to push you down into the painful rebirth. Don't delay your practice by moving around for tomorrow and the day after tomorrow. The Buddha warned us about the 5-future dangers in the Anguttara-Nikāya. Dangers should not be waited for but have to shun away. Don't take it as I am pushing you for practice. I see the great loss that warning you. (Retold the story of Sakka) Where is vitakka coming from? From mental proliferation (papañca) or tanhā, māna and ditthi. Where is papañca come from? From 3 types of feelings. Sakka entered the steam by meditation on feeling. Many yogis benefited by contemplation of feeling. Sāriputta became arahant by feeling and his nephew Dighanakkha also. Every feeling arises have to contemplate. You will only see the arising and the passing away of it. Dhamma reality becomes the Dhamma knowledge. Then it becomes in accordance with the Dhamma. The Buddha asked for us who have pāramis only to fulfill this one. In this way we know the nature of our khandhas. Without knowing it and papañca dhamma follow.

T6 [In the Anguttara-Nikāya, the Buddha warned about the 5-dangers human beings would encounter in the future. So he reminded and encouraged people to practice diligently now, as the 5-dangers would surely come. King Pasenadi of Kosala also had the 16 dreams on future human beings and the Chakkavati Sutta in the Dīgha-nikāya also mentioned by the Buddha about the future human beings and societies. All these sufferings and unfortunate things happen to human beings because of immorality.
(1)Old age: At this stage the body becomes weak and the mind dull, so difficult for practice. Practice should be continued. With a dull mind and weak kamma the practice will not effective. When we were young wasting our sharp mind and good kamma for defilement was a great lost.
(2)Sickness: When the body is sick also effects the mind, and difficult for practice.
(3)Time of starvation: It can be happened by natural causes or most probably men made. Wars and environmental problems created by human beings.
(4)Disharmony among people, society, country..etc., these can be many reasons and causes, e-g politics, economics, religions etc.
(5) Disharmony among the Sangha.
(Sayadaw continued the Sakka's questions) The Buddha's answers were traced backwards the causes of the problems. Diseases and short life <--issā-macchariya <--love and hate <--desire <--vitakka <--papañca (tanhā, māna, ditthi) <--feeling(vedanā)

So, practice with feelings stop papañca dhamma. The Buddha instructed Sakka on contemplation of feeling. vedanā can be divided into 3: pleasant(sukha), unpleasant(dukkha) and neutral(upekkhā) feeling. These are bodily feelings. For mental feelings: somanasa, domanasa, upekkhā. In this sutta the Buddha taught him how to deal with mental feelings. Mental feelings also grouped into 2: should be developed (wholesome) and should not be developed (unwholesome). So become 3x2=6-types of feelings.
(1)Somanassa should be developed; e-g comes from practice.
(2)Somanasa should not be developed; e-g comes from sensual pleasure.
(3)Domanasa should be developed; discontent with one's own practice. So put more effort and care one's own practice and become right effort.
(4)Domanasa should not be developed; dissatisfied with worldly things.
(5)Upekkhā should be developed; e-g vipassaupekkhā, discerning anicca at this moment the mind do not react like or dislike.
(6)Upekkhā should not be developed; dissatisfied or displeasure with worldly matters but can't deal with it and become indifferent domanasa upekkhā.
So there are 6-types of mental feelings; 3 should be developed and 3 should not. Positive feeling is part of observing mind and negative are the objects of vipassanā. Positive feeling leads to Nibbāna and ending dukkha. Negative feeling leads to Dukkha.]

The Buddha didn't want people to wait for the 5-future dangers. Instead of wanted them to finish their practices. If you don't do it now, then you are waiting for the danger of old age, waiting for forgetfulness, waiting for the danger of can't practice, waiting for the round of existence or painful rebirth. Work hard to finish it in this life, if you don't practice just only wasting your good kamma and intelligence for worldly matters.
If you have khandhas you have the danger of sickness. Before you are sick you are doing what craving tells you. When you are free from illness, the practice is easy to progress. There are sayings that when you are young looking for wealth; and when you are getting old looking for wisdom. All these are wrong. You are waiting for your disadvantages. The Buddha said that should not wait for the practice, but you want to wait. Now, you don't encounter famine yet, but when you getting old it can be. At that time can you practice because of the concerning about livelihood? Human beings have different views and doctrines and become disharmony. It's not good to lean towards any side and has to hide oneself away. In the future when the Sangha split it's not easy to pay attention to the Buddha Teachings and difficult for practice.

(Sayadaw continued Sakka's story) Pleasant mental feeling has connection with sensual pleasure should not be happened. Connection with dhamma it's good. Unpleasant mental feeling also should not be happened related to sensual pleasure. Related to dhamma is good. When you can't teach your children and indifferent to them is neutral mental feeling (domanassa upekkhā). It's also not good to happen. Equanimity of insight is good (vipassanupekkhā). I am still analyzing them and not put it into practice yet. Explain with dependent arising, it becomes more clear. Without it the dhamma is not finished. If you can cut off the process and then do it, if you can't just continue the process. In the khandhas just these 2 processes exist and no other. Without them there’s no Four Noble Truths. If you don't cut it off these are only dukkha and samudaya saccas. If you can do it become nirodha and magga saccas. Without including Noble Truth there is no realization. The 3-positive feelings cutting off the dependent arising and the negative feelings continue the process. Developing the 3-positive feelings and contemplating the 3-negative feelings as objects of contemplation.

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Avuso
文章: 459
註冊時間: 2004-09-19, 08:00

鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-17, 17:15

[17]Body Moving Towards Death
4th March1960

Don't mess up the I & me with the feeling. vedanā is feeling. I & me is wrong view. They are different. Feeling is arising here & passing away also here. It's arising there & passing away there. The patient has to follow in this way. Contemplate the impermanence of the feeling arising. Even the whole body is in pain, contemplate impermanence, where it has the most severe pain. Feeling is a mental state of feeling. Wrong view is also a mental state (i.e a sankhāra khandha). They can't mix together. Example, feeling appears in the body. I & me appear in the heart. They are different. Feeling is impermanent. Knowing that it is not I & me is insight knowledge. In this way you have to contemplate until all the feelings cease. Then all feelings end, so the whole khandhas disappear. At this place the ending of khandhas appear (i.e Nibbāna). Every feeling arises can be followed by contemplation of impermanence and taints (āsavas) diminish.

Ven. Phagguna died after became an anāgāmin (non-returner). After he passed away, Ānanda found out that his whole body was no defect and looked like as normal. So he informed the Buddha about it. Before he was practicing and tortured by the sickness because seeing the body as a composite thing. He was messed up the feeling with I & me. The Buddha taught the monks 6-ways of dying, 3 for ordinary people and 3 for trainees (sekha). (1)By listening to the Buddha's instruction on feeling separated from the sense of " I" could realize the fruit of sotāpanna to anāgāmin(as above to Phagguna). (2)By listening to the instruction of a Buddhist monk. (3)Without the Buddha and any monk at the time of near death should contemplate one's own dhamma and die with the knowledge of insight. The Buddha was not existing anymore. Also not easy to get a monk near death and don't know the time of death. People can die anytime. The best way is contemplation of one's own dhamma.

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Avuso
文章: 459
註冊時間: 2004-09-19, 08:00

鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-17, 17:18

[18]Craving Come From Affection
6th March 1960

Touch your body. Is it warm or not? It's burning with the fire of decay (jara). The body becomes mature because of it. A bamboo tree will fall after burning with more fire. In the same way the khandhas burning with more fire of decay becomes painful and sick. It's burning with the fire of sickness. You are sitting and can't keep your body still, and changing from this side to that side. This is burning with sickness. If this body is with more burning just prepare to go to the cemetery. Oppress by these things all the time that it is the truth of suffering (dukkha sacca). These things are happening because of the 5-khandhas. It's the cause of suffering. This Dhamma is not the same as yesterday talk. Today I include the truth of Dhamma (sacca). Anyone who doesn't practice wanting to live with these suffering. When you are sick and unpleasant feeling arises; contemplate and it ceases. If you follow them to the end, it disappears, then dukkha also disappears. The Buddha said that having the khandhas is having dukkha. So vedanās arise and follow them to the end; if vedanā ceases and then dukkha ceases. People want to free from sickness, but they don't do the work to free from it. So if you are healthy, contemplate it; and if not, also contemplate it. There was a discourse called Bojjhanga Sutta (Factors of enlightenment). When Buddhists are sick, they recite this one. Mahā-Moggallāna and Mahā-Kassapa were sick, so the Buddha taught them to recite the Bojjhanga. They did it what the Buddha said and cured their illnesses.

You all are contemplating impermanence and developing the factors of enlightenment, but most of you are reciting it. These dhamma are for contemplation. In the Sutta it was said that bhāvita and bahulikata. Bhāvita means contemplate, and bahulikata means contemplating many times or developing. When you are in good health by contemplation and preventing vedanā. And during sick, it cures vedanā. It's like taking medicine. So contemplation is magga sacca and vedanā cured is nirodha sacca. Nibbāna is in this body. Don't go and search it anywhere. As an example is Buddhagaya, and you will never find it. (Then Sayadaw referred the story of Rohitassa Devatā searching for the end of the world.) vedanāmkhayo Bhikkhu Nibbānam - Bhikkhu, the extinction of feeling is Nibbāna. Khandhas cease is also Nibbāna. Craving ceases is also Nibbāna. Don't afraid of old age, sickness and death but the affection of tanhā. This is the most difficult thing. We are living with tanhā in the whole round of existence. Practice insight into the affection things until disenchantment and no desire of them.

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Avuso
文章: 459
註冊時間: 2004-09-19, 08:00

鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART III

文章 Avuso » 2017-12-17, 17:23

[19]Two Kinds Of Speech Of The Buddha
30th Dec.1957 / 25th March 1960

There are 6 kinds of speech by man. The Buddha only used 2 of them. These are:
1. Not good, not true, not benefit, people don't like it.
2. Good, true, not benefit, people don't like it.
3. Good, true, benefit, people don't like it.
4. Not good, not true, not benefit, people like it.
5. Good, true, not benefit, people like it.
6. Good, true, benefit, people like it.
The Buddha used only No.3 and No.6 types of speech. These speeches also connection with sīla, so practitioner should follow these kinds of speech. Buddha used No.3 speech according to time and situation. If needed to be waited for the time and he waited for it. The Buddha used No.6 as soon as without delay. Sayadaw said he could not help lazy people, but can help people even they are dull until they understand. We should use these 2 kinds of speech skillfully in our daily life. These are using by noble and wise people.

The Buddha used 2 kinds of speech; (1) good, true, benefit and people don't like it, we have to use it according to time and place. (2) good, true, benefit and people like it, we have to use it without delay. As an example, the Buddha used it to teach Bahiya Daruciriya before he died. After the teaching he was killed by a cow. Sacca dhammas are not popular to people, but the Buddha was using it for his whole life. The 2nd type of speech is very important because for living and dying man can die anytime. Another point is concerning with young age and old age. When getting old difficult to listen dhamma talks and not easy for practice.

(Sayadaw talked about phassa - contact in practice.) Because of contact many feelings arise. If you can contemplate phassa until to the end is Nibbāna. But it's difficult than feeling. Dukkha vedanā is coarser than sukha vedanā. Therefore, easier for contemplation. Whatever kind of feeling arise, contemplate anicca. Anicca is in the khandhas. The ending of it, also in the khandhas. Impermanence is dukkha sacca and the ending of it is nirodha sacca.

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