鄔達摩尊者編譯 ~ 莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集

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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART II

文章 Avuso » 2016-11-13, 16:50

[8]The Functional Knowledge of Change
1st July 1961

[In this talk , Sayadaw talked about the functional knowledge of change (viparinamato), one of the meaning of Dukkha. There are 16 meanings of the Four Noble Truths. Each truth has 4-meanings. Sayadaw gave 19-talks on these subjects in Mandalay City from 6th to 25th December 1957. Especially the meanings on dukkha are very good for contemplation. In some of the suttas, the Buddha even mentioned that he only taught dukkha and the ending of dukkha. Only by penetrating dukkha thoroughly we can let go of craving and attachment. One of the meanings of dukkha is saṅkhāra dukkha (saṅkhātato). We can see this one in everyday life all the time and quite an extensive one, cover up everything. By contemplation on this one point very often have the very strong dispassion and disinterest in worldly matters.

In Savutthi the Buddha gave a talk on hell and one monk asked him was there anything more frightening than the Parihala Hell. Not knowing the truth or not cutting off one's own dependent arising process was more frightening than the hell. Because diṭṭhi was the seed of hell. Sayadaw said most Buddhists have the wrong idea that hells are already existed there for us. Actually our wrong views, defilements and actions create these things for us. Another important point he said was we can observe anicca from consciousness to kamma bhava will no kammic result. If we can't discern anicca, the process will continue.]

After arriving to hell, the hell fire is so strong that it blinding the eyes. The crying of the hell beings are deafening the ears. The smell of the hell is so horrible that the nose can be fallen off. The food and drink of hell are burning the mouth, tongue, small and large intestines. And the hot iron-liquid are fallen out from the bottom. The clothing of the hell are burning the bodies. Even thinking about them are burning you. Nothing is good there. (Mahā Parihala Niraya= The Great Burning Hell). There are still have chances to be freed from this hell. But not knowing the truth is more frightening than the hell. Because of not knowing- the ignorance(avijjā) is establishing all these hells. It's not happening by itself. These are done by people not knowing the truth. The things in the hell and fallen into it are creating by one's own unwholesome kammas. It's easy to go there and easy to free from it. Whatever arising must know as the truth of dukkha. You have to be afraid of not knowing and how to cut off the paticcasamupāda process. Don't be afraid of the hells. By knowing the truth the hells are closed off. Kammas open the doors of the hell and knowledge(Nyan) closing them off. Don't take the idea of that it's already there. One's own kamma is making preparation there. (This point had evidence in the Sutta of Nandiya Upasaka's story of heavenly mansions. These were already there even before he died.) One's own dukkha is one's own paticcasamupāda process which creating it. By kamma itself can't do anything. Making arrangement by defilements and constructing by actions. Don't be afraid of kamma but kilesas. As an example, it's like the arrow (kamma) and the shooter(tanhā). You have to be afraid of the shooter not the arrow. The Buddha did not mention about not thinking, if you want, just thinking about the Four Noble Truths for Nibbāna. From thoughts on sensual pleasure (kama vitakka), ill-will (vyāpāda vitakka) and harmfulness (vihimsa vitakka) come tanhā, māna & diṭṭhi. Today I'll talk about the truth of dukkha on change (viparinamato). Change is dukkha sacca and without change is nirodha sacca. Arising & passing away is viparinama. If you can discern viparinama then it's the functional knowledge (kicca nyan). Arising & passing away is the function of the mind/body process(kicca) , and the knowing is nyan. The changing nature is not causeless. It comes from ageing & death (jara & marana) carrying along with it.
最後由 Avuso 於 2016-11-13, 16:59 編輯,總共編輯了 1 次。

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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART II

文章 Avuso » 2016-11-13, 16:57

[9]Annihilation & Yamaka
14th to 15th July 1961

T1 [These 2 talks were based on Yamaka again. But there were some differences in it, time and content. Here Sayadaw talked about Nibbāna as the arahant still alive and experience Nibbāna, i-e Nirodho and Magga. After passing away only nirodho without magga. But no dukkha only with sukha and peace exist. Interpret Nibbāna as nothingless, it becomes annihilation. Even some later Buddists interpreted it as permanent identity. Because they have forgotten what the Buddha had said, i-e sabbe dhamma anatta- All dhamma is not-self. All dhamma means everything, including Nibbāna.

In this talk Sayadaw gave example and simile to express the nature of Nibbāna is remarkable and interesting. Also in a very practical sense. He said every living being is burning with 2 kinds of fire; fire of defilements and body fire. If we contemplate these 2 fires in our daily life will understand dukkha very clear. For an arahant, he has no fire of defilements but still has the fire of the body. In his whole process of practice, he realized the first to the last Nibbāna step by step. Here again some scholars and Buddhists misinterpret the Suttas as some yogis had realizations without step by step. These are coming from not understanding the nature of the mind and the law of nature. He knows sukha and peacefulness of Nibbāna with direct experience. With comparison he understands the burden of the body very clear. It's like the 2 stories building burning with fire. The ground building of the fire is extinguished but the upper story is still burning. In this situation what will you do. Surely you will continue to extinguish the upper fire until all are gone and totally peaceful. In this example the ground fire is defilements and the upper fire is the body.

For an ordinary person, he may think that arahant is already without defilements and his mind is peaceful , why should he passed away and continue to live forever. Sāriputta once said that after became an arahant, he was expecting for parinibbāna (passing away), because carrying the body around was too heavy and burdensome. Even he preferred to carry Mount Meru on his back than the body. Someone who is severely sick wanting to get well. In the same way anyone who really understands dukkha wants to free from it. A yogi practices and penetrates dukkha really wanting to transcend it.]

No sun and moon in Nibbāna, therefore will not suffer wind and rain. Only peace exists and without other things. No connection with any kind of dukkha is Nibbāna. No sun and moon, the natural dukkha, and mind dukkha are not there. Fuel (khandhas) and fire (kilesas) are gone out is Nibbāna. It's without dukkha and samudaya (5-khandhas and kilesas). Only nirodha and magga exist (Nibbāna and Path Knowledge). Dukkha ceases and sukha must appear. When you have a sore dukkha arise, and after cured sukha exists. It's important to cure the sores of defilement and khandha. If they are cured, it will appear. Only by appreciation of knowledge (nyan) and Nibbāna that the view of annihilation do not arise. Before the practice to know about them is the duty of the yogi. (Here, Sayadaw was quite different from other teachers. He emphasized very strongly to dispel wrong views with intellectual knowledge and understanding of suññatā dhamma and paticcasamupāda before the practice. It has 2 main reasons behind this point. The first realization is abandoning diṭṭhi. There were evidences in the Buddha's time and present day yogis who were practicing with wrong views had difficulties and problems during their practices.) After the arahant dies the impermanent khandha dukkha ceases and only sukha exists. Don't know one's own dukkha yet, so you don't know Nibbāna. The khandha is always burning with fire. Only the yogi knows it. Therefore he wants to free from the fuel and fire. The arahant doesn't have kilesa fire (already gone out) but the fire of the body still exists. He had seen Nibbāna only. It would be better if the khandha fire also gone out.

(Sayadaw gave the simile of 2 stories building is on fire.) After becoming an arahant all kilesa fire are gone. Therefore living with a very long life and helping living beings is better. This is the thinking of an ordinary person mind state (a worldling), not an arahant mind. (In India after the Buddha passed away and sometimes later some Buddhists developed new ideas and thinking into his teachings.) Here is the differences between the arahant and an ordinary folk (i-e puthujjana=worldling). This kind of thinking and talking are the mind of a worldling. Therefore arahants were wanting to put down their burdened khandhas, because they had already seen the peacefulness of Nibbāna and the burning khandhas.( They had seen Nibbāna already for 4 times in their step by step practice. Also by entering into fruition states every day.) It's the same as someone has an ulcer is wanting to be cured. (It reminds me about Chao Khoon Nor, a well known practicing monk in Thailand. He lived in a dwelling place which was closed all the time and practiced there for 45 years. Only came out for the morning and evening pujas. Later in his life developed throat cancer. I had seen a book documented his illness with colour photos which were frightening. It seems he could bear the physical pain.) But it's also not good for them to suicide. Most Buddhists are originally, have permanent view (sasata-diṭṭhi). But not understanding Nibbāna and have annihilation view. Ask to contemplate impermanence is let you know about the sores. If you don't discern impermanence yet can't talk about Nibbāna. You discern anicca and knowing the unhealthiness. If you know the unhealthiness can know the healthiness by justification. Don't know the truth of dukkha throughly (penetratingly) never realize the cessation of it (nirodha sacca). To realize Nibbāna, first to discern dukkha. If you don't appreciate Nibbāna surely you have the view of annihilation (uccheda diṭṭhi). Arahant is seeing 2 sights. Wanting to put down the burden because he had seen the real happiness. It's not a foolishness.

T2 Only discerning dukkha you are on the right track. Don't discern it you can't appreciate sukha, and also never realize Nibbāna .(Sayadaw recounted the story of Yamaka.) Without a teacher to explain these things, people will think that there is nothing in Nibbāna. No appreciation of Nibbāna, and people have uccheda diṭṭhi (view of annihilation). Yamaka contemplated anicca and anatta but couldn't succeed because couldn't let go of his view. The body has fire element, therefore it becomes ageing. (He recited the Pali gatha by Sāriputta after his arahantship.) After the realization he wanted to lay down his body. He had seen the burning of the khandha and the ceasing of it, that wanted to be free. This is also an evidence of the existence of Nibbāna. For the worldlings even they are burning with fire, still looking for more fire to burn them. They are having family lives and praying for the becoming ( Having bhava tanhā). Buddhists who don't want Nibbāna and have faith in Buddhism but they have uccheda diṭṭhi ( This point is important to some Buddhists for reflection. They can have both wrong views; i-e they have bhava tanhā – permanent view and frightening of annihilation.)

Yogis can know Nibbāna by justification. By discerning anicca then he knows that there is a place without anicca. Impermanence is truth of dukkha, then there is truth of sukha without the anicca. Wanting to reach Nibbāna have to come out from the province of impermanence. First have to discern anicca. This will know dukkha. With knowing dukkha the knowledge of not wanting will arise. Then the dukkha sacca of impermanence will come to an end. This ending is Nibbāna. Therefore from sotāpanna to arahant had seen the ending of impermanent dukkha for 4 times. He had seen the freedom of dukkha and couldn't take pleasure in living with the khandhas. There are 2 ways for reaching Nibbāna. By seeing directly and later reaching there. (i-e, with practice and after die.) Therefore an arahant after the realization prefer to die. Sāriputta himself was liked this. When Sāriputta went to see the Buddha and asking permission to lay down his khandhas , and the Buddha kept quiet. There were some reasons about this. By giving permission means killing, and without permission means still had kilesa. Therefore the Buddha told him that he had to know it by himself. If you have discerned impermanence you are on the middle way.

The Buddha said that Nibbāna; the unborn(ajatam) and unmade (abhutam) was exist. In each of the Buddha's Dispensation 80 billions and 100,000 living beings were in Nibbāna.

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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART II

文章 Avuso » 2016-11-13, 17:05

[10]Concept, Reality and Nibbāna
17th October 1961

There are the 4-realizations of Nibbāna , the stream enterer, once-returner, non-returner and the arahant (i-e sotāpanna, sakatagamin, anagamin and arahant). Then , the 5th one is all the khandhas ceased and the peacefulness of Nibbāna. I want you all to know , after the realization of the first Nibbāna, no need to worry about the future. For the other Nibbāna you already have the momentum of the knowledge(nyun). Even you are not listening to dhamma talks, this knowledge will push you forwards to the higher levels. Therefore the realization of the first Nibbāna is important. For the higher levels there are no other special ways. Starting from the impermanence again. If you ask why we were not realize Nibbāna before. The answer is because of not knowing and take the near things as far away. For the realization of the first Nibbāna must dispel the 3 wrong views. After clearing up these views you are sure to realize it. diṭṭhi nirodho Nibbānam – wrong view ceases is Nibbāna- refer to the first Nibbāna. Don't pray for any existence of life. Only the earthen-soil increasing and also you will suffer. Don't take these words as not significance. The one also prays this is sure for suffering. (This point is very important for any Buddhist to contemplate clearly whatever their traditions.) I am correcting you for your great mistakes. What you want to enjoy is vedānakkhandha ~ the aggregate of feeling. According to the Four Noble Truths, it's the truth of suffering. What you all are doing for the enjoyment of human and heavenly pleasures are only superficial. But it's the same meaning as I will be suffering again and again in the human and celestial worlds and increasing the earthen-soil. Truth (sacca) is right and feeling (vedāna) is not right. I am explaining for your great mistakes. It's very rare to find a teacher for corrections on these things. You are only seeing the pleasure of feeling , not the truth of it. You are dancing with the strings of craving. (Here Sayadaw using the simile of the string of puppet.)

Feeling arising means on the way to dukkha, and passing away means in dukkha. It's Dukkha Sacca. This kind of wishes and prayers are covering up Nibbāna. Not knowing (i-e ignorance or delusion) is more difficult than not having (This is a Burmese proverb showing the important of knowledge, because all unwholesomeness start from ignorance, then craving –tanhā).

Your desire and prayers for khandha dukkha are covering up Nibbāna. You take it as this is mine, this I am , this is myself , and all these can't penetrate the khandha's nature. You are slaves to the khandha that Nibbāna is out of your sight. (Most of Sayadaw's dhamma meanings were direct, simple and profound, and sometimes quite humorous.) Prayers and wishes for the khandha and wherever you will be the attachment to existence (bhava diṭṭhi) are covering up Nibbāna, therefore will never arrive to Nibbāna.

(Sayadaw said that Sāriputta asked questions to Yamaka and the ways he answered was helping him to let go of his wrong views by making him to understand concept and reality. And then taught him to observe the nature of the khandha and became a sotāpanna. After became a sotāpanna, Sāriputta asked him if someone asked you what happened to an arahant after he died. The answer was important, because only someone who had eradicated wrong views and doubts could answer in this way. Dukkha ends and sukha exists. The Buddha always emphasized that he taught only dukkha and the ending of dukkha. This point is very important for all Buddhists whatever their traditions. Any dhamma was not about dukkha and the ending of dukkha were not taught by him.)

After the arahant dies nothing happen means the same meaning as there is no Nibbāna. The Buddha taught in many ways as Nibbāna really exists. (e-g in Udāna Pali). In reality arahant is not exist, only a concept. The real existence is the 5-khandhas. Arahanta means a person who had killed the defilments. Puthujjana - worldling means a person who has very thick defilements. By taking off the concepts and contemplate the reality is going onwards to Nibbāna (one of the Dhamma qualities). Yamaka had the view of annihilation because he couldn't find a teacher. You can know the answer of a sotāpanna from the questions and answers between Sāriputta and Yamaka. You people are praying for Nibbāna without knowing it. There is a place without Dukkha. This must have to exist. Exist with only sukha, that is Nibbāna. But Nibbāna is out of sight because it is covered with Dukkha.

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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART II

文章 Avuso » 2016-11-21, 12:06

[11] Sorrow Deceiving as Compassion
23rd February 1959

[The following 6 talks were connecting with refined dhammas. Each one lasted only 30 minutes. Sayadaw gave to his 2 closed disciples who were couple. The following are not whole talks translation but only the main points.]

Sorrow(soka) can come in and deceiving as compassion(karuna). Worry, concerning, sorrow and sadness are not true compassion. Compassion is connecting with equanimity(upekkhā). Therefore compassion, equanimity and wisdom are connected. It's subtle and not easy to distinguish. Most people take sorrow(soka) as compassion(karuna). After the mind of compassion and altruistic joy (mudita) comes in and then falls into life continuum (bhavanaga citta). Therefore paticcasamupāda (dependent arising) is not going on (not connected). If sorrow comes in, it connects with the dependent arising. (Here Sayadaw gave an important instruction). Whatever mind state arising makes an effort to know it. With this we are not deceiving by the cunning mind. Whatever arising , contemplate impermanence. If you don't contemplate for the compassionate mind, it doesn't matter. But if you contemplate it will develop the knowledge. In contemplation of the mind, yogi must distinguish the different states of the mind. With this will know the arising & passing away of the mind. Concepts are also useful in their own. Knowing how to distinguish them will know the arising. By knowing the arising will know the passing away. Contemplate at this, it's concept. By knowing the passing away is discerning the impermanence. Do you know the benefit of names? If you reject conventional truth you don't know how to contemplate(Mahasi Vipassanā is a good example.). Therefore in the Satipatthāna Pali mentioned a word – pajānāti which means to know it. (Sayadaw gave some examples for the seriousness of sorrow.) It's similar to a person hit by a thorny object and difficult to pull out. Such thing as can't forget a deceased loved one for 3 years and 3 raining seasons.(This is a Burmese saying.)

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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART II

文章 Avuso » 2016-11-21, 12:14

[12] Lust Deceiving as Loving-kindness
24th February 1959

Lust can come in and deceiving as loving-kindness (metta), during sending metta only for the loved ones not including others. Metta means for everyone without differentiation. If tanhā comes in, contemplate this mind state first and continue the metta. Someone who overcomes one's own mind knows whatever mind state arises. Without overcome it don't know the mind state. Therefore there are more unwholesome mind states arising. The best way is contemplating whatever mind state arising. By doing serenity(samatha) practice, defilements can come in the practice. In samatha, if lobha or dosa comes in become unstable, and it falls off. Only vipassanā can be stable.

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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART II

文章 Avuso » 2016-11-21, 12:23

[13]Tanhā Deceiving as Altruistic Joy
25th February 1959

Tanhā and altruistic joy(mudita) are similar in smiling nature. But their objects are not similar. Gladness for all is mudita. If only for someone is tanhā. Mudita comes from mindful attention. Have gladness on everyone. Generally if only for one person, then tanhā comes in. With a determination whatever mind state arises , I'll contemplate it. And then mostly you can do it. If tanhā extincts kamma become fruitless. Blown away like a cotton wool. Tanhā is clinging to the khandhas. Therefore if you can contemplate the khandha as truth of dukkha, tanhā will extinct.

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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART II

文章 Avuso » 2016-11-21, 12:33

[14] Selfishness Deceiving as Equanimity
26th February 1959

Some people sometimes using language like equanimity, but including selfishness and anger. Equanimity means seeing all living beings in equilibrium according to their own kammas. By checking the nature of the language and the voice can know true equanimity or not. Envy (issa), selfishness (macchariya), dosa (anger), worry & remorse (kukkucca) can combine together. In seeing just seeing only, in hearing just hearing only,…etc. become equanimity (upekkhā). Whatever arising just knowing it arising or contemplating impermanence. If you don't know about these will become ignorance (avijjā).(There is a Burmese word came from the Pali word upekkhā. Its meaning is different. Here Sayadaw referred this kind of upekkhā as selfishness and anger.)

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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART II

文章 Avuso » 2016-11-21, 12:41

[15]Worry and Sorrow Entering as Sense of Urgency
27th February 1959

[Samvega – sense of urgency, this Pali word may be the less well known or even unaware outside the Theravadin tradition. In Burma this word become a common Burmese word as anicca, dukkha, anatta. It seems to me it's a very important word for contemplation to search for the meaning of our human existence. As Sayadaw mentioned it's a kind of knowledge(nyan), which can push or inspire someone on the path or following the Noble Eight Fold Path to end dukkha. We can know this from the real stories of Siddhartha Boddhisatta, Sāriputta,…etc in the Pali Suttas and some modern day yogis. Nowadays modern human beings under the influence of the 3-unwholesome roots ~ greed, hatred and delusion take Dukkha as Sukha and create a lot of human problems and sufferings in family life, society and bring destruction to natural environments.
A western teacher described the meaning of samvega as –“ It's a hard word to translate because it covers such a complex range – at least 3-clusters of feeling at once: the oppressive sense of shock, dismay and alienation that comes with realizing the futility and meaning of life as it's normally lived ; a chastening sense of our own complicity complacency and foolishness in having let ourselves live so blindly ; an anxious sense of urgency in trying to find a way out of the meaningless cycle.”
Although this talk was very short, there were profound meanings behind it. True samvega develop intelligent wisdom to great wisdom. If worry, sorrow and dosa come in, it can be suicidal. Committed suicide and accumulation of unwholesome mental states are also an interesting point. Nowadays more people (young or old) committed suicide than before , because we accumulate more and more pollutants (rubbish) into our hearts every day from many unhealthy ideas or poisoned-educations.]

Sense of urgency (samvega) is a knowledge (intelligence or nyan). But with it worry remorse and dosa can come in. People committed suicide were because of their accumulation of unwholesome mental states. We have to abandon unwholesomeness (pahatabba). Have to develop wholesomeness (bhavetabba). [This last point usage of abandoning (pahatabba) and developing (bhavetabba) actually referred to the whole mental development. Practicing each factor of the Noble Eight Fold Path also has this meaning. So each factor is important in its own. It's right effort. In the 37-factors of enlightenment ; effort is 9-times, sati is 8-times, wisdom is 5-times and Samādhi is 4-times mentioned respectively. The Thai forest monks in their talks very often mentioned as sati/paññā. Sayadaw also very often mentioned it important as the whole practice, i-e pancaganga magga or vipassanā knowledge.

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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART II

文章 Avuso » 2016-11-21, 15:02

[16]Take Anger as Wholesome
28th February 1959

[Take anger as wholesome – these words by Sayadaw was remarkable. Like a prediction by him for modern man civilization. Even it's become like a human education. You can see this very clear. A lot of violence and harmfulness are going on in nearly every part of human civilization ; economics, politics, cultures, religion ..etc. Actually we are not only take anger as wholesome, also the others 2 unwholesome roots, greed and delusion. For modern man whatever their religions back ground, actually they are worshiping the Trinity-Gods without their knowing – i.e, ignorance (avijjā).]

Using harsh language to teach people (parents, teachers and religious leaders..etc) is taking as wholesome mental state. Any wholesome and unwholesome mental state arise by knowing it, and overcome one's mind. It's also need to analyze the nature of the mind state. Therefore contemplation on mind (cittanupassanā) is important. The voice comes from the mind is significant. Even animals can differentiate it. The Buddha said that angry person easy to get old. (Sayadaw gave an example.) Throwing a stone with anger and by frightening to someone are not the same factors. With anger is more painful. It's harmful to both. Therefore it's harmful to the body. With sorrow tears run down. With fright hairs and gooseflesh raise up. Because of anger commit suicide. Go and look at a person's face died with anger. The face is looked ugly. With anger even vomiting blood (the story of Sāriputta's former teacher Sanjaya). Don't take a small anger as insignificant. It can make you sleepless. If you know how to correct the mind, the face also has a good look. Only people have mindfulness can correct oneself. As soon as anger arise, can contemplate it and not continue to action (kamma).

Must know that one's mind is not good. Also have to accept the correction of parents and teachers. But not every parents and teachers have the qualities. Where this state of mind (character) come from ? From birth. Most of them come from hells. (Sayadaw said we can know the recent past life of any baby from the outwards behavior. As example, if a baby cries a lot, comes from hell and has dosa nature. A baby smiles and happy nature, comes from pleasant existence. A baby sleeps a lot from animal existence. Here the important point is not the past life which had already gone. But very important to reconditioning our bad nature to good nature by training our speech, body and mind.) From hells with anger, so they cry a lot, and easier to become angry. Baby with moha whatever happen, they keep quiet. From heaven they speak with smile and happiness. Without correction it becomes worse (for bad characters). If you pickle something for a long time become more and more sour. Originally people's minds are not good. Nothing is good without correction. Have to make correction or reconditioning (Sayadaw gave a fish meat dish for example.) If you let fish in natural state, it's smelly. By using ginger, onion and spices, the smell is nice and tasty.

Even the Buddha came from the bad to goodness. Can't distinguish good and bad, can't correct oneself. Still have time and make the corrections. With many bad things in near death is not easy to do it. There are 2 forms of extraction. Extract from the bad and the good. The first one is correcting the bad things and becomes good. The second one is yogi wasting his times by worldly affairs without proper practice. There are 3 ways of using our times. Good, not good (i.e bad) and between good & bad. Between good & bad is sleeping. Mostly people are living their lives with bad and between. Therefore the most important is first to know one's mind. There are 2 types of crazy people, people with mental instability and crazy ignoramus. (People under the influence of ignorance. Most people are falling into this type.) The first one is mental illness. Majority are in the 2nd type. Avijjā paccaya saṅkhāra – ignorance conditions action – conditioned crazy ignoramus. Mental illness still has medicine. But crazy ignoramus doesn't know the medicine, because everyone is like us (i.e crazy ignoramus or ignorance people).

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鄔達摩尊者英譯~莫哥(Mogok)禪師開示集 PART II

文章 Avuso » 2016-11-21, 15:25

[17]Sīla And Vipassanā
12th March 1959

[Sayadaw said we should use the clothes and foods by reflection to stop tanhā arises. We earn the money by right livelihood still without contemplation nothing wrong with sīla, but in vipassanā it's negative.]

By contemplation on food, if disgusting and aversion (dosa) arise, it's also not right. As example, don't want to eat or stop eating. The result should be equanimity. Neither tanhā nor dosa should arise. (During the Buddha's time some monks committed suicide by reflection on the repulsiveness of the body.) Yogi has wisdom faculty easy to develop the perception of food as loathsome, but don't let aversion come in. The way of wisdom is developing (bhavetabba) and abandoning (pahatabba). Lobha, dosa, moha have to be abandoned not for developing.(Now modern men are doing just these things. It's an important point. Therefore Sayadaw very often mentioned in his talks about intellectual understanding – Tirana pariññā). If true wisdom, not taking pleasure on foods and drinks, but not become I don't want to eat or drink and it becomes displeasure (domanasa). If it is wisdom, not continue to kamma, and only to Nibbāna. Dosa arises and continues to kamma (see the paticcasumupāda). Wisdom is white dhamma and dosa is black dhamma, can never mix-up together. By knowing their differences can do it right. Therefore the important of contemplation on the mind is quite clear. If , it's true patikula saññā (perception of loathsomeness) will not become lobha and dosa, but only wisdom.

Dosa also has their levels. Displeasure in something is domanassa. Becoming quarrel and fighting is aversion (patighara). These are refined dhamma taught by the Buddha. Both of them are dosa nature. The differences between them are becoming more coarser. Here the Buddha wanted to teach was not for patighara, but wanted to know the subtlety of domanassa. It is difficult to know. (According to Sayadaw, mostly we have vyāpāda – ill-will to foods and clothes, and not become patighara. There was a true tragic story happened in Burma. A man used to have his meal everyday with chilies and without it couldn't eat. But unfortunately, one day for some reasons or forgotten, his wife not prepared for it. At the dinning place he became very angry and instantly grabbed a fire wood near him struck the head of his wife and killed her. If we contemplate the suffering created for/by foods is quite a big problem.(e-g, pesticides, chemical , etc. in foods and other pollutions. ) There was an important sutta in Nidāna-Samyutta called Puttamansapama Sutta – A simile of a son's flesh – about the 4-nutriments , one is physical foods.) In human society, especially in family members there are a lot of vyāpāda happening between each other. But usually we say nothing and keep quite.

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